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Effect of milling mechanism on the CO2 capture performance of limestone in the Calcium Looping process

Benitez-Guerrero, M; Valverde, JM; Perejon, A; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Chemical Engineering Journal, 346 (2018) 549-556


This work analyzes the relevant influence of milling on the CO2 capture performance of CaO derived from natural limestone. Diverse types of milling mechanisms produce contrasting effects on the microstructure of the CaO formed after calcination of the milled limestone samples, which affects crucially the kinetics of carbonation at conditions for CO2 capture. The capture capacity of CaO derived from limestone samples milled using either shear or impact based mills is impaired compared to as-received limestone. After calcination of the milled samples, the resulting CaO porosity is increased while crystallinity is enhanced, which hinders carbonation. Conversely, if the material is simultaneously subjected to intense impact and shear stresses, CaO porosity is promoted whereas CaO cristanillity is reduced, which enhances carbonation in both the reaction and solid-state diffusion controlled regimes.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.03.146

Synergy achieved in silver-TiO2 nanocomposites for the inhibition of biofouling on limestone

Becerra, J; Zaderenko, AP; Sayagues, MJ; Ortiz, R; Ortiz, P
Building and Environment, 141 (2018) 80-90


Biodeterioration of stone monuments is estimated to be as high as 20-30% of the total degradation suffered by Cultural Heritage constructions. With regard to this problem, bactericidal treatments are mainly based on cleaning. These processes, while effective in the short term, require frequent reapplications increasing potential damages to the monument. Silver nanoparticles offer many advantages over traditionally employed products, such as their prolonged biocide efficacy and their low toxicity to humans and environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of seven nanocomposite treatments based on titanium dioxide and/or silver nanoparticles to prevent biodeterioration of limestone monuments. These nanocomposites were characterized by UV Visible spectrophotometry, Dynamic Light Scattering and Electron Microscopy. To assess their bactericidal activity, accelerated weathering tests were performed on limestones from the quarry of Utrera, a source widely employed in such iconic monuments as the Cathedral of Seville (Spain). Furthermore, the samples of biopatina employed in our assays stemmed from the fa ades of historical buildings from Seville. Our results show that silver and titanium dioxide nanocomposites stabilized by citrate achieve a high biocide effect while maintaining color alterations at a low level.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.buildenv.2018.05.020

On the determination of thermal degradation effects and detection techniques for thermoplastic composites obtained by automatic lamination

Martin, MI; Rodriguez-Lence, F; Guemes, A; Fernandez-Lopez, A; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Perejon, A
Composites part A-Applied science and manufacturing, 111 (2018) 23-32


Automatic lay-up and in-situ consolidation with thermoplastic composite materials is a technology under research for its expected use in the profitable manufacturing of structural aeronautical parts. This study is devoted to analysing the possible effects of thermal degradation produced by this manufacturing technique. 
Rheological measurements showed that there is negligible degradation in PEEK for the temperatures reached during the process. Thermogravimetric analysis under linear heating and constant rate conditions show that thermal degradation is a complex process with a number of overlapping steps. A general kinetic equation that describes the degradation of the material with temperature has been proposed and validated. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that there is no remarkable degradation. The use of a combination of in-situ and ex-situ experimental techniques, including kinetic modelling, not only provides reliable information about degradation but also allows setting optimal processing conditions.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.compositesa.2018.05.006

Synthesis and characterization of SiC/Si3N4 composites from rice husks

Real, C; Cordoba, JM; Alcala, MD
Ceramics International, 44 (2018) 14645-14651


SiC-Si3N4 composites have been obtained by carbothermal reduction of rice husk under a nitrogen-argon atmosphere at 1450 degrees C, which is a lower temperature than those used by other authors. On the other hand, tailoring the argon/nitrogen ratio led to the obtained of SiC-Si3N4 composites across the whole range of compositions. Phosphoric acid treatment permited the synthesis of the composite without a pyrolysis step. The final products were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.05.090

Electrical conduction mechanisms in graphene nanoplatelet/yttria tetragonal zirconia composites

Poyato, R; Osuna, J; Morales-Rodriguez, A; Gallardo-Lopez, A
Ceramics International, 44 (2018) 14610-14616


Yttria tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline (3YTZP) ceramic composites with 5, 10 and 20 vol% graphene nano-platelets (GNPs) were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and their electrical conductivity as a function of temperature was characterized. The composites exhibit anisotropic microstructures so the electrical conductivity studies were carried out in two directions: perpendicular (sigma(perpendicular to)) and parallel (sigma(parallel to)) to the SPS pressing axis. The composites with 5 and 10 GNP vol% showed high electrical anisotropy, whereas the composite with 20 GNP vol % exhibited nearly isotropic electrical behavior. sigma(perpendicular to) shows metallic-type behavior in the composites with 10 and 20 vol% GNP revealing that charge transport takes place through defect-free GNPs. For the composite with 5 vol % GNP the observed semiconductor-type behavior was explained by a two dimensional variable range hopping mechanism. sigma(parallel to)shows metallic-type conductivity in the composite with 20 GNP vol% and positive d sigma(parallel to)/dT slope in the composites with 5 and 10 GNP vol%.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2018.05.082

Structural Reversibility of LaCo1-xCuxO3 Followed by In Situ X-ray Diffraction and Absorption Spectroscopy

Pereniguez, Rosa; Ferri, Davide
Chemphyschem, 19 (2018) 1876-1885


Combinations of perovskite-type oxides with transition and precious metals exhibit a remarkable self-regenerable property that could be exploited for numerous practical applications. The objective of the present work was to study the reversibility of structural changes of perovskite-type oxides under cyclic reducing/oxidizing atmosphere by taking advantage of the reducibility of LaCoO3. LaCoO3 +/- and LaCo0.8Cu0.2O3 +/- were prepared by ultrasonic spray combustion and were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR). XRD and XAS data confirmed that copper adopted the coordination environment of cobalt at the B-site of the rhombohedral LaCoO3 under the selected synthesis conditions. The structural evolution under reducing atmosphere was studied by insitu XRD and XANES supporting the assignment of the observed structural changes to the reduction of the perovskite-type oxide from ABB'O-3 (B'=Cu) to B'(0)/ABO(3) and to B'B-0(0)/A(2)O(3). Successive redox cycles allowed the observation of a nearly complete reversibility of the perovskite phase, i.e. copper was able to revert into LaCoO3 upon oxidation. The reversible reduction/segregation of copper and incorporation at the B-site of the perovskite-type oxides could be used in chemical processes where the material can be functionalized by segregation of Cu and protected against irreversible structural changes upon re-oxidation.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201800069

Mechanochemical synthesis, structural, magnetic, optical and electrooptical properties of CuFeS2 nanoparticles

Dutkova, E; Bujnakova, Z; Kovac, J; Skorvanek, I; Sayagues, MJ; Zorkovska, A; Kovac, J; Balaz, P
Advanced Powder Technology, 29 (2018) 1820-1826


The rapid mechanochemical synthesis of nanocrystalline CuFeS2 particles prepared by high-energy milling for 60 min in a planetary mill from copper, iron and sulphur elements is reported. The CuFeS2 nanoparticles crystallize in tetragonal structure with mean crystallite size of about 38 ± 1 nm determined by XRD analysis. HRTEM study also revealed the presence of nanocrystals with the size of 5–30 nm with the tendency to form agglomerates. The Raman spectrum confirms the chalcopyrite structure. Low temperature magnetic data for CuFeS2 support the coexistence of antiferromagnetic and paramagnetic spin structure. Moreover, the hysteresis loops taken at temperatures from 5 K to 300 K revealed a presence of very small amount of ferromagnetic phase, which seems to be associated with the non-consumed elemental Fe in as-prepared nanoparticles. The optical band gap of CuFeS2nanoparticles has been detected to be 1.05 eV, larger than band gap of the bulk material. The wider gap possibly resulted from the nano-size effect. Photoresponses of CuFeS2nanoparticles were confirmed by I-V measurements under dark and light illumination. It was demonstrated that mechanochemical synthesis can be successfully employed in the one step preparation of nanocrystalline CuFeS2 with good structural, magnetic, optical and electrooptical properties.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apt.2018.04.018

Surface modification of Ti-6Al-4V alloys manufactured by selective laser melting: Microstructural and tribo-mechanical characterization

Torres, Y; Sarria, P; Gotor, FJ; Gutierrez, E; Peon, E; Beltran, AM; Gonzalez, JE
Surface & Coatings Technology, 348 (2018) 31-40


Medical grade of both titanium (Ti) and Ti6A14V alloy are recognized as the metallic biomaterials with the better outcomes for clinical repair of bone tissue thanks to their suitable mechanical properties and corrosion resistance. However, those Ti advantages are not enough to avoid failure risks of bone implants; between 5 and 10% of Ti implants fail due to a deficient osseointegration, within 5 years of post-implantation. Most of these failures indicate the necessity of getting a better biomechanical-biofunctional balance. Microstructural and tribo-mechanical characterizations were performed on Ti6A14V samples obtained by selective laser melting and subjected to different surface treatments (thermal stress relief, acid etching, chemical treatment and thermochemical treatment). Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used for detailed characterization of the elemental composition, phase analysis and surface morphology. Micro-hardness and scratch tests were employed to evaluate the tribo-mechanical properties, which were improved after consecutive surface treatments. Protuberances with spherical morphology, as a remainder of the original powder, were present on the surface. The resulting modified surfaces were constituted by rutile (major phase) and anatase (minor phase). Submicro-nano-topographies were obtained after the chemical and thermochemical treatments.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.05.015

Photonic structuring improves the colour purity of rare-earth nanophosphors

Geng, DL; Cabello-Olmo, E; Lozano, G; Miguez, H
Materials Horizons, 5 (2018) 661-667


Nanophosphor integration in an optical cavity allows unprecedented control over both the chromaticity and the directionality of the emitted light, without modifying the chemical composition of the emitters or compromising their efficiency. Our approach opens a route towards the development of nanoscale photonics based solid state lighting.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8mh00123e

Plant cuticle under global change: Biophysical implications

Heredia-Guerrero, JA; Guzman-Puyol, S; Benitez, JJ; Athanassiou, A; Heredia, A; Dominguez, E
Global Change Biology, 24 (2018) 2749-2751


Climatic stressors due to global change induce important modifications to the chemical composition of plant cuticles and their biophysical properties.
In particular, plant cuticles can become heavier, stiffer and more inert, improving plant protection.
The climatic stressors that modify the chemical composition of plant tissues have been recently reviewed by Suseela and Tharayil (2018). In particular, the authors stated that the response of plants to global change effects (viz. increasing temperatures and frequent drought periods) can induce important modifications in plant cuticles such as an increase of the main cuticle components (cutin and polysaccharides), a preponderance of cutan, heavier wax loads, and changes in the chemical composition of waxes, mainly the accumulation of longer aliphatic compounds. In this letter, we would like to emphasize the biophysical consequences that this new scenario involves and how it would affect plant performance.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1111/gcb.14276

The Role of Metal Halide Perovskites in Next-Generation Lighting Devices

Lozano, G.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9 (2018) 3987-3997


The development of smart illumination sources represents a central challenge for current technology. In this context, the quest for novel materials that enable efficient light generation is essential. Metal halide compounds with perovskite crystalline structure (ABX(3)) have gained tremendous interest in the last five years since they come as easy-to-prepare high performance semiconductors. Perovskite absorbers are driving the power-conversion-efficiencies of thin film photovoltaics to unprecedented values. Nowadays, mixed-cation, mixed-halide lead perovskite solar cells reach efficiencies consistently over 20% and promise to get close to 30% in multijunction devices when combined with silicon cells at no surcharge. Nonetheless, perovskites' fame extends further since extensive research on these novel semiconductors has also revealed their brightest side. Soon after their irruption in the photovoltaic scenario, demonstration of efficient color tunable-with high color purity-perovskite emitters has opened new avenues for light generation applications that are timely to discuss herein.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01417

Origin of Light-Induced Photophysical Effects in Organic Metal Halide Perovskites in the Presence of Oxygen

Anaya, M; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Calvo, ME; Espinos, JP; Miguez, H
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9 (2018) 3891-3896


Herein we present a combined study of the evolution of both the photoluminescence (PL) and the surface chemical structure of organic metal halide perovskites as the environmental oxygen pressure rises from ultrahigh vacuum up to a few thousandths of an atmosphere. Analyzing the changes occurring at the semiconductor surface upon photoexcitation under a controlled oxygen atmosphere in an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) chamber, we can rationalize the rich variety of photophysical phenomena observed and provide a plausible explanation for light-induced ion migration, one of the most conspicuous and debated concomitant effects detected during photoexcitation. We find direct evidence of the formation of a superficial layer of negatively charged oxygen species capable of repelling the halide anions away from the surface and toward the bulk. The reported PL transient dynamics, the partial recovery of the initial state when photoexcitation stops, and the eventual degradation after intense exposure times can thus be rationalized.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01830

Hydrodeoxygenation of vanillin over carbon supported metal catalysts

Santos, JL; Alda-Onggar, M; Fedorov, V; Peurla, M; Eranen, K; Maki-Arvela, P; Centeno, MA; Murzin, DY
Applied Catalysis A-General, 561 (2018) 137-149


Different carbon supported metal catalysts were synthesized, and characterized with various physico-chemical methods and tested in vanillin hydrodeoxygenation under 30 bar total pressure in water as a solvent at 100 degrees C. The catalysts exhibited high specific surface area and the metal dispersion decreased in following order: Pt/ C > Pd/C > Au/C > Rh/C > Ru/C. The most active catalyst was Pd/C followed by Ru/C. Vanillin hydrodeoxygenation proceeded via hydrogenation forming vanillyl alcohol further to its hydrogenolysis forming p-creosol. Both hydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were promoted by Pd/C, which exhibited rather high dispersion. The highest selectivity to p-creosol, 95% at complete vanillin conversion, was obtained with Pd/C. Kinetic modelling of vanillyl alcohol selectivity as a function of vanillin conversion was performed.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcata.2018.05.010

Structural, optical and X-ray attenuation properties of Tb3+: BaxCe1-xF3-x (x=0.18-0.48) nanospheres synthesized in polyol medium

Gonzalez-Mancebo, D; Becerro, AI; Genevois, C; Allix, M; Corral, A; Parrado-Gallego, A; Ocana, M
Dalton Transactions, 47 (2018) 8382-8391


Uniform Ba0.18Ce0.82F2.82 nanospheres have been obtained after aging a solution of barium and cerium nitrates and sodium tetrafluoroborate in a mixture of ethylene glycol and water at 120 degrees C for 20 hours. The diameter of the spheres could be tailored from 65 nm to 80 nm by varying the NaBF4 concentration while maintaining their colloidal stability in aqueous suspension. Increasing the aging temperature led to a phase transformation from hexagonal to cubic symmetry and to a concomitant increase of the Ba/Ce ratio, which reached a value close to the nominal one (50/50) at 240 degrees C. The same method was successful in obtaining Tb3+-doped nanospheres with homogeneous cation distribution and the same morphological features as the undoped material. An intense green emission was observed after the excitation of the Tb3+-doped samples through the Ce3+-Tb3+ energy transfer (ET) band. The ET efficiency increased with increasing Tb content, the maximum emission being observed for the 10% Tb-doped nanospheres. Aqueous suspensions of the latter sample showed excellent X-ray attenuation values that were superior to those of an iodine-based clinically approved contrast agent. Their fluorescence and X-ray attenuation properties make this material a potential dual bioprobe for luminescence bioimaging and X-ray computed tomography.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1039/c8dt01202d

Design of Ag/ and Pt/TiO2-SiO2 nanomaterials for the photocatalyti degradation of phenol under solar irradiation

Matos, J; Llano, B; Montana, R; Poon, PS; Hidalgo, MC
Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25 (2018) 18894-18913


The design of hybrid mesoporous TiO2-SiO2(TS1) materials decorated with Ag and Pt nanoparticles was performed. The photocatalytic degradation of phenol under artificial solar irradiation was studied and the activity and selectivity of the intermediate products were verified. TiO2-SiO(2)was prepared by sol-gel method while Ag- and Pt-based photocatalysts (TS1-Ag and TS1-Pt) were prepared by photodeposition of the noble metals on TS1. Two series of photocatalysts were prepared varying Ag and Pt contents (0.5 and 1.0 wt%). An increase in the photocatalytic activity up to two and five times higher than TS1 was found on TS1-Ag-1.0 and TS1-Pt-1.0, respectively. Changes in the intermediate products were detected on Ag- and Pt-based photocatalysts with an increase in the catechol formation up to 3.3 and 6.6 times higher than that observed on TS1, respectively. A two-parallel reaction mechanism for the hydroquinone and catechol formation is proposed. A linear correlation between the photocatalytic activity and the surface concentration of noble metals was found indicating that the electron affinity of noble metals is the driven force for both the increase in the photoactivity and for the remarkable changes in the selectivity of products.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1007/s11356-018-2102-3

The effect of vitreous phase on mullite and mullite-based ceramic composites from kaolin wastes as by-products of mining, sericite clays and kaolinite

Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Eliche-Quesada, D; Martinez-Martinez, S; Garzon-Garzon, E; Perez-Villarejo, L; Rincon, JM
Materials Letters, 223 (2018) 154-158


Mullite precursors were prepared using kaolin waste, sericite clay containing kaolinite and industrial kaolin with addition of alumina in a wet medium to synthesize mullite (72 wt% Al2O3 and 28 wt% SiO2). Uniaxial pressed bars of the powdered mullite precursors were fired in the range 1400-1600 degrees C with soaking times 30-120 min. The resultant materials were studied by XRD and SEM-EDX. Bulk densities, apparent porosities and flexural strengths in four points were determined in the fired bars at 1500, 1550 and 1600 degrees C. It was concluded that the thermal behaviour of these mullite precursors was influenced by the presence of impurities in the raw materials. These impurities originate a liquid phase forming a glassy phase which produces a progressive and enhanced densification of the mullite materials by reaction sintering at 1500-1600 degrees C. The technical properties were also influenced by the relative proportion of vitreous phase. The microstructure of characteristic mullite crystals was revealed by SEM. It was emphasized the use of kaolin waste by-products of mining and sericite clays as valuable raw materials for mullite preparation.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2018.04.037

Photo/Electrocatalytic Properties of Nanocrystalline ZnO and La–Doped ZnO: Combined DFT Fundamental Semiconducting Properties and Experimental Study

Ahsaine, A.H.; Slassi, A.; Naciri, Y.; Chennah, A.; Jaramillo‐Páez, C.; Anfar, Z.; Zbair, M.; Benlhachemi, A.; Navío, J.A.
Chemistry Select, 3 (2018) 77778-7791


This work reports the synthesis of nanocrystalline ZnO and 5% La‐doped ZnO (La/ZnO) materials for photo/electrocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B. The samples were characterized by X‐Ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X‐Ray photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance spectra. The effect of La doping on electronic structure was investigated using density functional theory calculations (DFT), La‐doped ZnO showed an n‐type metallic nature compared to pristine ZnO and La doping creates occupied states within the band gap edge. Under UV light, La/ZnO showed higher kinetic constant and efficiency than ZnO. A possible mechanism was elaborated on the basis of DFT and active trapping measurements. Different initial Rhodamine B concentration were studied to assess the electro‐oxidation of RhB. The electrochemical degradation of RhB over La/ZnO spindles electrode was pronounced with three time's high kinetic constant. The superior electro/photoactivity of La/ZnO was due to its unique morphology, high charge separation of the charge carriers and higher conductivity induced by La‐doping (intermediary levels). Superoxide ions and holes were the main active species for the photodegradation. Whereas, synergetic effect of hydroxyl radicals and hypochlorite ions were responsible of the high RhB electrocatalytic degradation.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1002/slct.201801729

Comparison of solvent extraction and extraction chromatography resin techniques for uranium isotopic characterization in high-level radioactive waste and barrier materials

Hurtado-Bermudez, S; Villa-Alfageme, M; Mas, JL; Alba, MD
Applied Radiation and Isotopes, 137 (2018) 177-183


The development of Deep Geological Repositories (DGP) to the storage of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) is mainly focused in systems of multiple barriers based on the use of clays, and particularly bentonites, as natural and engineered barriers in nuclear waste isolation due to their remarkable properties. 
Due to the fact that uranium is the major component of HLRW, it is required to go in depth in the analysis of the chemistry of the reaction of this element within bentonites. The determination of uranium under the conditions of HLRW, including the analysis of silicate matrices before and after the uranium-bentonite reaction, was investigated. The performances of a state-of-the-art and widespread radiochemical method based on chromatographic UTEVA resins, and a well-known and traditional method based on solvent extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP), for the analysis of uranium and thorium isotopes in solid matrices with high concentrations of uranium were analysed in detail. 
In the development of this comparison, both radiochemical approaches have an overall excellent performance in order to analyse uranium concentration in HLRW samples. However, due to the high uranium concentration in the samples, the chromatographic resin is not able to avoid completely the uranium contamination in the thorium fraction.

Julio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2018.04.008

Unexpected Optical Blue Shift in Large Colloidal Quantum Dots by Anionic Migration and Exchange

Acebron, M; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Lopez, C; Herrera, FC; Mizrahi, M; Requejo, FG; Palomares, FJ; Juarez, BH
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 9 (2018) 3124-3130


Compositional changes taking place during the synthesis of alloyed CdSeZnS nanocrystals (NCs) allow shifting of the optical features to higher energy as the NCs grow. Under certain synthetic conditions, the effect of those changes on the surface/interface chemistry competes with and dominates over the conventional quantum confinement effect in growing NCs. These changes, identified by means of complementary advanced spectroscopic techniques such as XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and XAS (X-ray absorption spectroscopy), are understood in the frame of an ion migration and exchange mechanism taking place during the synthesis. Control over the synthetic routes during NC growth represents an alternative tool to tune the optical properties of colloidal quantum dots, broadening the versatility of the wet chemical methods.

Junio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b00741

Pressure Effect on the Multicycle Activity of Natural Carbonates and a Ca/Zr Composite for Energy Storage of Concentrated Solar Power

Sarrion, B; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perejon, A; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Valverde, JM
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 6 (2018) 7849-7858


This work is focused on the use of the Calcium-Looping process (CaL) in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants for Thermochemical Energy Storage (TCES). Cheap, abundant and nontoxic natural carbonate minerals, such as limestone and dolomite, can be employed in this application to store energy through the cyclic calcination/carbonation of CaCO3. In a recent work, a closed CO2 cycle has been proposed for an efficient CaL-CSP integration in which the CO2 in excess effluent from the carbonator is used to generate electricity by means of a gas turbine. Process simulations show that the thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced as the carbonator pressure and temperature are increased provided that the multicycle CaO conversion is not affected. On the other hand, the use of just one reactor for both calcination and carbonation has been suggested to reduce capital cost. However, the experimental results shown in the present work indicate that sintering is notably enhanced as the pressure in the reactor is increased. Such an adverse effect is mitigated for a ZrO2/CaCO3 composite with a low Zr content as compared to natural carbonates. These results are relevant to process simulations for better assessing the global efficiency of the CaL-CSP integration.

Junio, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.8b00981