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2009


M-Doped Al2TiO5 (M=Cr, Mn, Co) Solid Solutions and their Use as Ceramic Pigments


Dondi, M; Lyubenova, TS; Carda, JB; Ocaña, M
Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 92 (2009) 1972-1980

ABSTRACT

New ceramic pigments based on the tialite (Al2TiO5) structure, doped with Co (pink), Cr (green), or Mn (brown), were prepared through the pyrolysis of aerosols followed by calcination of the obtained powders at 1400°C. The expected decomposition of Al2TiO5 into a mixture of Al2O3 and TiO2 on refiring was inhibited by Cr-doping and also by co-doping with Mg the Mn- or Co-doped samples. Microstructure and phase evolution during pigment preparation were monitored by scanning electron microscopy and XRPD. Unit cell parameters of tialite were determined by Rietveld refinement of the X-ray diffraction patterns, revealing in all cases the formation of solid solutions where the solubility of dopants in the Al2TiO5 lattice followed the trend Co<Mn<Cr. The valence state and possible location of dopants in the tialite lattice were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectra and diffuse reflectance spectroscopies, which suggested the presence of Cr3+ ions in a large interstitial site of the tialite lattice with a distorted octahedral geometry, and of Mn3+ and Co2+ ions in the Al3+ octahedral sites of the tialite lattice in the former case, and in both Al3+ and Ti4+ octahedral sites in the latter. Testing the ceramic glazes assessed the technological behavior of pigments, which found that the color stability was reasonably good for the Mn-doped tialite and the Cr-doped pigment, although the latter suffered a small loss of green hue. The Co-doped pigment was found to be not stable in glazes, undergoing a cobalt-leaching effect.


Junio, 2009 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1551-2916.2009.03172.x

Phyllites used as waterproofing layer materials for greenhouses crops in Spain: multivariate statistical analysis applied to their classification based on X-ray fluorescence analysis


Garzon, E; Garcia-Rodriguez, IG; Ruiz-Conde, A; Sanchez-Soto, PJ
X-Ray Spectrometry, 38 (2009) 429-438

ABSTRACT

The results are presented for the chemical characterization carried out with 53 raw material samples with phyllosilicates from outcrops located between the provinces of Almería and Granada (SE Spain) in order to use them as waterproof layers under the floors of greenhouses. For this purpose, the samples have been studied by these techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), chemical analysis by energy-dispersive X-Ray detection (EDX), and thermogravimetry. To isolate groups of phyllite samples with similar chemical profiles and correlations between the samples, the WDXRF data (11 chemical elements) have been processed using the methodology of exploratory multivariate statistical analyses: cluster analysis, main-component analysis, and discriminating canon analysis. This study was performed as a screening test and as a means of finding similarities and correlations among all 53 phyllite samples, allowing the isolation of groups of phyllite samples with similar chemical profiles. The results indicate that the 53 phyllite samples can be divided into two main groups. The first group is subdivided into two subgroups (1 and 2), one of which includes most of the samples. The latter is further classified into three blocks with the same chemical composition. This allows to search for the raw material with potentially the best waterproof characteristics within the five groups. The classification is of validity as a screening test for subsequent experimental determinations concerning the physical properties of these samples.


Junio, 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/xrs.1199

Fibrous MnO2 Nanoparticles with (2 × 2) Tunnel Structures. Catalytic Activity in the Total Oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds


Dominguez, MI; Navarro, P; Romero-Sarria, F; Frias, D; Cruz, SA; Delgado, JJ; Centeno, MA; Montes, M; Odriozola, JA
Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 9 (2009) 3837-3842

ABSTRACT

Manganese oxides having 2 × 2 tunnel structures (cryptomelanes) have been synthesized by a milling method in order to test their efficiency as catalysts for the abatement of volatile organic compounds, using toluene as probe molecule. These materials present excellent textural properties, arising from the nanofiber morphology and were active for toluene total oxidation. DRIFTS of the adsorbed phase allow proposing the role of lattice oxygen in the catalytic reaction.


Junio, 2009 | DOI: 10.1166/jnn.2009.NS76

Application of 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR Spectroscopy to the Study of the Reaction Mechanism of Kaolinite to Illite/Muscovite


Mantovani, M; Escudero, A; Becerro, AI
Clays and Clay Minerals, 57 (2009) 302-310

ABSTRACT

Understanding the mechanisms for illitization of clay minerals has important applications in reconstructing geologic histories and determining the origins of physical and chemical characteristics of buried sediments. While many studies have been carried out on this topic, few have focused on the mechanism of illite formation from kaolinite. The purpose of this study was to investigate more deeply the illitization of kaolinite in KOH solution at a high solid/liquid ratio (1000 mg/mL). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy were used to follow the formation of new crystalline phases and the composition of the octahedral sheet, while the transformation of the Si and Al local environments was analyzed by 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MAS NMR). The results revealed that the first reaction stage consists of the diffusion of Al from the octahedral to the tetrahedral sheet of the kaolinite TO layers, giving rise to the precursors of the illite/muscovite nuclei. Combination of XRD with 27Al MAS NMR measurements indicated that a minimum amount of tetrahedral Al is required in the original TO layer before condensation of a second tetrahedral sheet occurs to complete the formation of the illite/muscovite TOT layers.


Junio, 2009 | DOI: 10.1346/CCMN.2009.0570303

Determination of nitrogen partitioning coefficients in superduplex stainless steels by NRA using a nuclear microprobe


Munoz, C; Morilla, Y; Lopez, JG; Paul, A; Odriozola, JA
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 267 (2009) 2208-2211

ABSTRACT

Superduplex stainless steels (SDSSs) combine the good mechanical behavior and the high corrosion resistance of the ferrite (α-Fe) and austenite (γ-Fe) phases. The SDSSs properties depend strongly on the partitioning of the elements that form the alloy. The ferrite is generally enriched in P, Si, Cr and Mo while the content of Ni, Mn, Cu and N in the austenite phase is higher. Nitrogen is known to be a strong austenite stabilizer and its presence increases the strength and the pitting corrosion resistance of the stainless steels. While the global nitrogen content in SDSSs can be readily determined using elemental analyzers, it cannot be measured at a microscopic scale.

In this work, the nuclear microprobe of the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (Sevilla) was used to obtain the quantitative distribution of nitrogen in SDSSs. A deuteron beam of 1.8 MeV was employed to determine the overall elemental concentration of the matrix by deuteron-induced X-ray emission, whereas the nitrogen partitioning coefficients were obtained by using the 14N(d, α0)12C nuclear reaction. Mappings of this element show that the nitrogen ratio between the ferrite and austenite phases ranges from 0.3 to 0.6 in the analyzed samples.


Junio, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.03.093

Molding with nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals: a route to flexible and transferable Bragg mirrors of high dielectric contrast


Calvo, ME; Sobrado, OS; Lozano, G; Miguez, H
Journal of Materials Chemistry, 19 (2009) 3144-3148

ABSTRACT

Self-standing, flexible Bragg mirror films of high refractive index contrast and showing intense and wide Bragg peaks are herein presented. Nanoparticle-based one-dimensional photonic crystals are used as templates to infiltrate a polymer, which provides the multilayer with mechanical stability while preserving the dielectric contrast existing in the mold. Such films can be lifted off the substrate and used to coat another surface of arbitrary shape.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1039/B902090J

W,N-Codoped TiO2-Anatase: A Sunlight-Operated Catalyst for Efficient and Selective Aromatic Hydrocarbons Photo-Oxidation


Kubacka, A; Bachiller-Baeza, B; Colon, G; Fernandez-Garcia, M
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113 (2009) 8553-8555

ABSTRACT

New W,N-doped TiO2 anatase-based materials are synthesized having both unprecedent high activity and selectivity in the gas-phase partial oxidation of aromatic hydrocarbons using sunlight as excitation energy and molecular oxygen as oxidant.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1021/jp902618g

Thermal Stability and Oxidation Resistance of Nanocomposite TiC/a-C Protective Coatings


Martinez-Martinez, D; Lopez-Cartes, C; Gago, R; Fernandez, A; Sanchez-Lopez, JC
Plasma Processes and Polymers, 6 (2009) S462-S467

ABSTRACT

Nanocomposite films composed by small crystallites of hard phases embedded in an amorphous lubricant matrix have been extensively studied as protective coatings. These kinds of coatings have often to work in extreme environments, exposed to high temperatures (above 800–900 °C), and/or oxidizing/corrosive atmospheres, which may resist. As a result, it is important to study the behavior of such coatings at high temperatures (thermal stability) and in the presence of oxygen (oxidation resistance). In this sense, we have selected a TiC/a-C nanocomposite coating with good mechanical and tribological properties in order to do several thermal tests under three different environments: high vacuum (10−6 mbar), low vacuum (10−1 mbar), and air. Our observations allow us to establish that the film microstructure is stable at least up to 1 000 °C in high vacuum. When oxygen is present, the practical temperature of use is reduced at 700 °C (low partial pressure) and 300 °C (air) by formation of Ti oxides and C removal.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1002/ppap.200931002

Wetting angles and photocatalytic activities of illuminated TiO2 thin films


Rico, V; Romero, P; Hueso, JL; Espinos, JP; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Catalysis Today, 143 (2009) 347-354

ABSTRACT

TiO2 thin films have been prepared by physical vapour deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) to study the UV-induced photo-activity of this material. Wetting angle variations and photo-catalytic activity for the degradation of dyes upon UV illumination have been compared for thin films with different crystalline structure (amorphous, rutile and anatase), microstructure (columnar, compact, etc.) and porosities as estimated from the values of their refraction indices and their direct assessment with a quartz crystal monitor. The surface of the thin films became superhydrophilic upon UV light irradiation and then it recovered its original state by keeping the samples in the dark. Wetting angle decays follow very similar kinetics for amorphous and crystalline films, independently of their actual porosities. By contrast the photo-catalytic activity was very dependent on the crystalline structure of the films (anatase > rutile > amorphous) and on their porosities. The different behaviour depicted by the films with regard to these two properties suggests that they respond to different though related mechanisms and that they cannot be considered as equivalent when trying to prove the photo-activity of TiO2.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2008.09.037

Integration of methanol steam reforming and combustion in a microchannel reactor for H2 production: A CFD simulation study


Arzamendi, G; Dieguez, PM; Montes, M; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA; Gandia, LM
Catalysis Today, 143 (2009) 25-31

ABSTRACT

A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the thermal integration of the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) and the combustion of methanol in a catalytic microchannel reactor is presented. This issue is of interest for in situ H2 production for portable power units based on low-temperature PEM fuel cells. Three-dimensional simulations have been carried out under relevant conditions for the SRM reaction that have shown that microreactors allow achieving complete methanol reforming and combustion at space velocities as high as 50,000 h−1, with selectivities for H2 above 99% at relatively low temperatures in the 270–290 °C range.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2008.09.034

Cationic (V, Mo, Nb, W) doping of TiO2–anatase: A real alternative for visible light-driven photocatalysts


Kubacka, A; Colon, G; Fernandez-Garcia, M
Catalysis Today, 143 (2009) 286-292

ABSTRACT

In this article we investigate the structure–activity link of anatase-type Ti–M (M = V, Mo, Nb, and W) mixed oxides used for toluene photo-oxidation under sunlight-type excitation. An analysis of the local and long-range structural and electronic characteristics of the mixed oxides show that only structurally highly homogeneous anatase-type oxides with electronic properties exclusively leading to a band gap decrease drive to efficient visible light-driven photocatalysts. Within our microemulsion preparation method, this only occurs for Ti–V and Ti–W series of samples. The isoelectronic (V4+) substitution of Ti4+ ions at the anatase lattice is characterized by a low solubility limit (ca. 2.5 at. %), and drives to a limited modification of the band gap and to a moderate enhancement of the photo-activity with respect to bare titania reference systems. W presence at anatase cation positions occurs with concomitant presence of cation vacancies derived by the charge imbalance between the W6+ and Ti4+ species. A unique W-vacancy local arrangement is detected by the structural characterization, leading to both an important band gap decrease and enhancement of the photo-activity upon sunlight excitation.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2008.09.028

AISI 304 Austenitic stainless steels monoliths for catalytic applications


Martinez, LM; Sanz, O; Dominguez, MI; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Chemical Engineering Journal, 148 (2009) 191-200

ABSTRACT

The thermal treatments of austenitic stainless steels monoliths were studied in order to generate a highly homogeneous and rough oxide scale strongly attached to the base alloy, which will subsequently ensure the good adherence of the catalysts. In this work it has been shown that the morphology, integrity and homogeneity of the scale are strongly influenced by the temperature and time of treatment. Washcoating method was used to deposit on the monolith surface a Au/CeO2 catalyst. The drying procedure turned out to be the most critical variable for the adherence and homogeneity of the catalytic ceria layer, while the ceria colloid concentrations in the starting aqueous dispersion seems to have only a threshold effect. The monolithic reactors containing Au/CeO2 layers are active in the oxidation of CO.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2008.12.030

High deposition rates of uniform films in tetramethylsilane-based plasmas generated by elementary microwave sources in matrix configuration


Latrasse, L; Lacoste, A; Sanchez-Lopez, JC; Bes, A; Rayar, M; Pelletier, J
Surface and Coatings Technology, 203 (2009) 2343-2349

ABSTRACT

Plasma scaling up can be achieved by distributing elementary microwave plasma sources on planar rectangular networks. These so-called matrix plasmas can generate uniform sheets of plasma over a wide argon pressure range, from 7.5 to 750 Pa, with densities between 1012 and 1013 cm− 3. In order to estimate the capabilities of matrix plasmas for PACVD processing in terms of deposition rate and uniformity, SiOCH and SiNCH films were deposited using TMS (tetramethylsilane), as the organic gas precursor of silicon, mixed with oxygen or nitrogen flows. Plasmas of O2 / TMS and N2 / TMS gas mixtures can be sustained between 5 and 25 Pa. Variations in the deposition rate as a function of microwave power and nitrogen partial pressure are reported. Thickness uniformity of SiOCH and SiNCH films was measured across a silicon wafer. The obtained deposition rates exceed 1.3 μm/min and the films present a uniformity better than 5% on 75 mm diameter silicon wafers. Composition of the films has also been analyzed by XPS as a function of process parameters: microwave input power, composition of gas mixture, and N2 partial pressure. In particular, these analyses have shown a very low yield of nitrogen incorporation when using N2 gas as nitrogen precursor and high Si and Si–Si bonding contents in the films, probably due to a strong fragmentation of the TMS precursor in the high density plasma.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.02.121

Molecular dynamics simulation of the effect of pH on the adsorption of rhodamine laser dyes on TiO2 hydroxylated surfaces


Hamad, S; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Barranco, A; Mejias, JA; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Molecular Simulation, 35 (2009) 1140-1151

ABSTRACT

We have carried out a study of adsorption, on the (1 0 1) surface of anatase TiO2, of two industrially relevant rhodamine molecules [rhodamine 6G (R6G) and rhodamine 800 (R800)] employing molecular dynamics. These theoretical studies have shown that R6G must adsorb on surfaces under basic conditions. Moreover, the adsorption of this molecule shows a strong dependence upon the pH of the system, i.e. under basic conditions the adsorption energy is quite high, under neutral conditions the adsorption energy is lower and under acidic conditions an even lower adsorption energy indicates that there must be very little adsorption under such conditions. By contrast, for R800, there is little dependence of the adsorption energy upon the pH, suggesting that the amount of adsorption of these molecules is little affected by this parameter. These theoretical results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results consisting of the incorporation of these dye molecules into porous thin films.


Mayo, 2009 | DOI: 10.1080/08927020903108083

Gold/hydroxyapatite catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity to CO oxidation


Dominguez, MI; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 87 (2009) 245-251

ABSTRACT

This work reports the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity for CO oxidation of gold catalysts supported on calcium hydroxyapatite. On both, the hydroxyapatite support and the gold-supported hydroxyapatite catalyst, the CO conversion shows a peak near 100% of conversion at room temperature. The generation of structural vacancies by interaction of CO with the solid provokes the formation of peroxide species in the presence of gaseous oxygen, which seems to be responsible of this high conversion of CO at room temperature. Moreover, the influence of the pre-treatment temperature on the activity has been observed and related with the elimination of carbonate species and the generation of structural defects in the apatite structure, which are able to modify the gold oxidation state.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.09.016

Synthesis and Characterization of Ce1−xEuxO2−x/2 Mixed Oxides and Their Catalytic Activities for CO Oxidation


Hernandez, WY; Centeno, MA; Romero-Sarria, F; Odriozola, JA
Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 113 (2012) 5629-5635

ABSTRACT

A series of Ce1−xEuxO2−x/2 mixed oxides was synthesized by coprecipitation. The solids were characterized by means of XRF, SBET, XRD, UV−vis, and Raman techniques, and their catalytic activities toward CO oxidation were tested. A solid solution, with CeO2 F-type structure, is formed for europium contents (measured as Eu2O3 by XRF) ≤20% wt. For higher contents, the solid solution is not formed, but a physical mixture is detected. The existence of oxygen vacancies in the solids with Eu2O3 contents between 3 and 17% wt was demonstrated by the presence of bands at 532 and 1275 cm−1 in their Raman spectra. The catalytic performances of the solids correlate with the amount of these punctual defects in the solid solution.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1021/jp8092989

Sonication induced redox reactions of the Ojén (Andalucía, Spain) vermiculite


Poyato, J; Perez-Rodriguez, JL; Ramirez-Valle, V; Lerf, A; Wagner, FE
Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 16 (2009) 570-576

ABSTRACT

Sonication in a 1:1 mixture (volume ratio) of water and concentrated H2O2 (30%) is a soft method for particle size reduction of phyllosilicate minerals like vermiculites. Repeated sonication causes a particle size reduction to about 70 nm for the Santa Olalla and to 45 nm for the Ojén-vermiculite. In this context the question arises whether the strong oxidising effect of the hydrogen peroxide affects the oxidation state of the iron in the vermiculites. Therefore, the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio before and after sonication was determined by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. Whereas this ratio was found to remain almost constant in the Santa Olalla vermiculite, it increased from 0.79 to 0.85 in case of the Ojén sample. In the latter case, the oxidation is accompanied by a decrease of the layer charge.

Surprisingly, sonication in pure water leads to a decrease of the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio in the case of the Ojén-vermiculite, i.e., to an increase of the Fe2+ fraction to roughly twice the value before sonication. Again the Fe3+/Fetotal ratio of the Santa Olalla vermiculite remains unchanged. The surface area SBET of the reduced Ojén-vermiculite amounts to 50 m2/g, which is close to the value obtained in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The results presented should be taken as a warning that particle size reduction by sonication may be accompanied by a change of the redox state and the layer charge of the material.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2008.12.009

Surface nanostructuring of TiO2 thin films by ion beam irradiation


Romero-Gomez, P; Palmero, A; Yubero, F; Vinnichenko, M; Kolitsch, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Scripta Materialia, 60 (2009) 574-577

ABSTRACT

This work reports a procedure to modify the surface nanostructure of TiO2 anatase thin films through ion beam irradiation with energies in the keV range. Irradiation with N+ ions leads to the formation of a layer with voids at a depth similar to the ion-projected range. By setting the ion-projected range a few tens of nanometers below the surface of the film, well-ordered nanorods appear aligned with the angle of incidence of the ion beam. Slightly different results were obtained by using heavier (S+) and lighter (B+) ions under similar conditions.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.scriptamat.2008.12.014

Study of ground and unground leached vermiculite


Maqueda, C; Perez-Rodriguez, JL; Subrt, J; Murafa, N
Applied Clay Science, 44 (2009) 178-184

ABSTRACT

Grinding of clays modifies their surfaces and can significantly affect their leaching behaviour. The acid reaction of vermiculite from Santa Olalla (Huelva, Spain) with HCl at various concentrations was affected by grinding and acid concentration. The acid leaching of ground vermiculite for 3 min with 1 M HCl solution at 80 °C for 24 h removed MgO and Al2O3 almost completely, leaving a residue containing SiO2 and Fe2O3. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the presence of akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and an amorphous phase (silica). Porosity studies showed a very high specific surface area for ground samples compared with unground vermiculite samples, attributed to the presence of iron in the residue coming from structural iron. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the presence of iron oxyhydroxides embedded in the silica material. The particle morphology of the iron oxides corresponded well to akaganeite microcrystals precipitated from solution. The leached vermiculite residue also contained Cl− and a small amount of Ti4+, which were accumulated into the akaganeite microcrystals.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.clay.2009.01.019

Properties of Ti(C,N) cermets synthesized by mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction


Cordoba, JM; Sanchez-Lopez, JC; Aviles, MA; Alcala, MD; Gotor, FJ
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 29 (2012) 1173-1182

ABSTRACT

The properties of TiCxN1−x/(Ni or Co) cermets sintered by a pressureless method from powder mixtures, and obtained for the first time by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction process (MSR), were studied. The hardness, toughness, friction and wear coefficients, and oxidation resistance were determined. It was shown that cermets obtained from powdered materials synthesized in one single MSR step possessed improved mechanical properties, similar to those obtained in cermets with more complex bulk compositions. Higher wear resistances were observed in cermets whose hard phase was richer in carbon. The oxidation resistance of the cermets depended primarily on the binder composition. This resistance was better for those cermets with cobalt as the binder. Superior oxidation resistance was displayed when small amounts of W or Mo were incorporated into the binder.


Abril, 2009 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2008.08.019

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