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Artículos SCI



2017


Failure mode and effect analysis of a large scale thin-film CIGS photovoltaic module


Delgado-Sanchez, JM; Sanchez-Cortezon, E; Lopez-Lopez, C; Aninat, R; Alba, MD
Engireering failure analysis, 76 (2017) 55-60

ABSTRACT

The efficiency of thin-film CIGS based cells at the laboratory scale is now getting closer to conventional Silicon technologies. As a consequence, the long-term stability of CIGS is now one of the main challenges left to address in order to assess its potential as an alternative for photovoltaic plants. This paper reports an overview of the critical risks for the commercial viability of the CIGS thin-film technology. The key causes of the potential failures of this technology are determined through the Failure Mode Analysis and Effects (FMEA) methodology. To validate the results obtained from the FMEA, aging tests and outdoor monitoring were also carried out. Based on the results obtained, we argue that the encapsulation material is the main cause of degradation in CIGS modules. 


Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.02.004

Analysis of Ni species formed on zeolites, mesoporous silica and alumina supports and their catalytic behavior in the dry reforming of methane


Drobna, Helena; Kout, Martin; Soltysek, Agnieszka; Gonzalez-Delacruz, Victor M.; Caballero, Alfonso; Capek, Libor
Reaction Kinetics Mechanisms and Catalysis, 121 (2017) 255-274

ABSTRACT

The presented investigation is focused on the analysis of Ni species formed on microporous (zeolites MFI and FAU) and mesoporous materials (Al-MCM- 41 and SBA-15) and alumina supports and their catalytic behavior in the dry reforming of methane. The paper lays emphasis on the relationship between the catalytic behavior of Ni-based catalysts and their textural/structural properties. Ni-based catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation (11 wt% of Ni) followed by calcination in air and reduction in hydrogen. The properties of Ni-based catalysts were also compared prior and after the catalytic tests. The critical role was played by the high value of the specific surface area and the high strength of the interaction between the Ni species and the support, which both determined the high dispersion and stability of metal Ni-0 particles. Ni-Al-MCM-41 and Ni-SBA-15 showed the values of the conversion of CO2 and CH4 above 90% (stable during 12 h). Slightly lower values of the conversion of CO2 and CH4 were observed over Ni-Al2O3 (also stable during 12 h). In contrast to these materials, Ni-MFI and Ni-FAU exhibited the worse metallic Ni-0 particles dispersion and very bad catalytic behavior.


Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s11144-017-1149-3

High surface area biopolymeric-ceramic scaffolds for hard tissue engineering


Romero-Sanchez, LB; Borrego-Gonzalez, S; Diaz-Cuenca, A
Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 3 (2017) art UNSP 035012

ABSTRACT

The development of scaffolds mimicking native bone tissue composition and structure is a challenge in bone tissue engineering. 3D scaffolds with both an interconnected macropore structure and nanotextured surfaces are required. However, 3D scaffolds processed by microfabrication usually lack of nanotextured surface, while nanotextured materials generated by bottom-up nanofabrication are difficult to process conforming scaffolds having well interconnected microsized cavities. In this work, the processing of reticulated (macropore interconnected) structures using nanostructured precursors has been performed to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The application of a fibrillar collagen coating, using less than 1 wt% collagen per scaffold, has allow a significant increase of the compressive strength while preserving a high surface area and nanopore accessibility. Besides, the fibrillar nanostructured collagen coating promotes hydroxyapatite mineralization. Two different collagen-coating procedures are applied showing interesting differences in terms of mechanical performance.


Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1088/2057-1976/aa7001

1-dimensional TiO2 nano-forests as photoanodes for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells fabrication


Salado, M; Oliva-Ramirez, M; Kazim, S; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Ahmad, S
Nano Energy, 35 (2017) 215-222

ABSTRACT

During the last years, perovskite solar cells have gained increasing interest among the photovoltaic community, in particularly after reaching performances at par with mature thin film based PV. This rapid evolution has been fostered by the compositional engineering of perovskite and new device architectures. In the present work, we report the fabrication of perovskite solar cells based on highly ordered 1-dimensional vertically oriented TiO2 nano-forests. These vertically oriented porous TiO2 photoanodes were deposited by physical vapor deposition in an oblique angle configuration, a method which is scalable to fabricate large area devices. Mixed (MA0.15FA0.85)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 or triple cation Cs0.05(MA0.15FA0.85)0.95Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 based perovskites were then infiltrated into these 1-dimensional nanostructures and power conversion efficiencies of 16.8% along with improved stability was obtained. The devices fabricated using 1D-TiO2 were found to be more stable compare to the classical 3-dimensional TiO2 photoanodes prepared by wet chemistry. These 1-D photoanodes will be of interest for scaling up the technology and in other opto-electrical devices as they can be easily fabricated utilizing industrially adapted methodologies.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.03.034

Critical Role of Oxygen in Silver-Catalyzed Glaser-Hay Coupling on Ag(100) under Vacuum and in Solution on Ag Particles


Orozco, N; Kyriakou, G; Beaumont, SK; Sanz, JF; Holgado, JP; Taylor, MJ; Espinos, JP; Marquez, AM; Watson, DJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Lambert, RM
ACS Catalysis, 7 (2017) 3113-3120

ABSTRACT

The essential role of oxygen in enabling heterogeneously catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling of phenylacetylene on Ag(100) was elucidated by STM, laboratory and synchrotron photoemission, and DFT calculations. In the absence of coadsorbed oxygen, phenylacetylene formed well-ordered dense overlayers which, with increasing temperature, desorbed without reaction. In striking contrast, even at 120 K, the presence of oxygen led to immediate and complete disruption of the organic layer due to abstraction of acetylenic hydrogen with formation of a disordered mixed layer containing immobile adsorbed phenylacetylide. At higher temperatures phenylacetylide underwent Glaser–Hay coupling to form highly ordered domains of diphenyldiacetylene that eventually desorbed without decomposition, leaving the bare metal surface. DFT calculations showed that, while acetylenic H abstraction was otherwise an endothermic process, oxygen adatoms triggered a reaction-initiating exothermic pathway leading to OH(a) + phenylacetylide, consistent with the experimental observations. Moreover, it was found that, with a solution of phenylacetylene in nonane and in the presence of O2, Ag particles catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling with high selectivity. Rigorous exclusion of oxygen from the reactor strongly suppressed the catalytic reaction. Interestingly, too much oxygen lowers the selectivity toward diphenyldiacetylene. Thus, vacuum studies and theoretical calculations revealed the key role of oxygen in the reaction mechanism, subsequently borne out by catalytic studies with Ag particles that confirmed the presence of oxygen as a necessary and sufficient condition for the coupling reaction to occur. The direct relevance of model studies to a mechanistic understanding of coupling reactions under conditions of practical catalysis was reaffirmed.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b00431

NO photooxidation with TiO2 photocatalysts modified with gold and platinum


Rodriguez, MJH; Melian, EP; Santiago, DG; Diaz, OG; Navio, JA; Rodriguez, JMD
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 205 (2017) 148-157

ABSTRACT

In this study, a comparative analysis is made of TiO2 modified with Pt or Au in NO photoxidation under different radiation and humidity conditions. The metals were deposited on the TiO2 surface using two methods, photodeposition and chemical reduction. All catalysts were supported on borosilicate 3.3 plates using a dip-coating technique. These modified photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis (XPS). It was found from the XPS results that Pt and oxidized Pt species coexist on the samples obtained by photodeposition and chemical reduction. In the case of Au, though other oxidation states were also detected the dominant oxidation state for both catalysts is Au. TEM results showed most Au-C particles are below 5 nm, whereas for Au-P the nanoparticles are slightly bigger. With UV irradiation, the Pt modified catalysts do not show any significant improvement in NO photocatalytic oxidation in comparison with the unmodified P25. For Au, both modified photocatalysts (Au-P and Au-C) exceed the photocatalytic efficiency of the unmodified P25, with Au-C giving slightly better results. The incorporation of metals on the TiO2 increases its activity in the visible region. 


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.10161/j.apcatb.2016.12.006

Energy-Sensitive Ion- and Cathode-Luminescent Radiation-Beam Monitors Based on Multilayer Thin-Film Designs


Gil-Rostra, Jorge; Ferrer, Francisco J.; Pedro Espinos, Juan; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Yubero, Francisco
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (2017) 16313-16320

ABSTRACT

A multilayer luminescent design concept is presented to develop energy sensitive radiation-beam monitors on the basis of colorimetric analysis. Each luminescent layer within the stack consists of rare-earth-doped transparent oxides of optical quality and a characteristic luminescent emission under excitation with electron or ion beams. For a given type of particle beam (electron, protons, alpha particles, etc.), its penetration depth and therefore its energy loss at a particular buried layer within the multilayer stack depend on the energy of the initial beam. The intensity of the luminescent response of each layer is proportional to the energy deposited by the radiation beam within the layer, so characteristic color emission will be achieved if different phosphors are considered in the layers of the luminescent stack. Phosphor doping, emission efficiency, layer thickness, and multilayer structure design are key parameters relevant to achieving a broad colorimetric response. Two case examples are designed and fabricated to illustrate the capabilities of these new types of detector to evaluate the kinetic energy of either electron beams of a few kilo-electron volts or a particles of alpha few mega-electron volts.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b01175

Design and Realization of a Novel Optically Disordered Material: A Demonstration of a Mie Glass


Miranda-Munoz, Jose M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Miguez, Hernan
Advanced Optical Materials, 5 (2017) art. 1700025

ABSTRACT

Herein, a diffusive material presenting optical disorder is introduced, which represents an example of a Mie glass. Comprising spherical crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles randomly dispersed in a mesoporous TiO2 matrix, it is proved that the scattering of light in this inhomogeneous solid can be predicted in an unprecedented manner from single-particle considerations employing Mie theory. To that aim, a study of the dependence of the key parameters employed is performed to describe light propagation in random media, i.e., the scattering mean free path and the transport mean free path, as a function of the size and concentration of the spherical inclusions based on a comparison between experimental results and analytical calculations. It is also demonstrated that Mie glasses enable enhanced fluorescence intensity due to a combined absorptance enhancement of the excitation light combined with an improved outcoupling of the emitted light. The method offers the possibility to perform a deterministic design for the realization of a light diffuser with tailor-made scattering properties.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201700025

Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection at NiO nanoporous thin film-electrodes prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles


Salazar, Pedro; Rico, Victor; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.
Electrochimica Acta, 235 (2017) 534-542

ABSTRACT

In this work we report a non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection based on nanostructured nickel thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. Porous thin films deposited on ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microcopy (SEMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Constant Potential Amperometry (CPA). The microstructure of the thin films consisted of inclined and separated Ni nanocolumns forming a porous thin layer of about 500 nm thickness. Prior to their use, the films surface was electrochemically modified and the chemical state studied by CV and XPS analysis. These techniques also showed that Ni2+/Ni3+ species were involved in the electrochemical oxidation and detection of H2O2 in alkaline medium. Main analytical parameters such as sensitivity (807 mA M(-1)cm(-2)), limit of detection (3.22 mu M) and linear range (0.011-2.4 mM) were obtained under optimal operation conditions. Sensors depicted an outstanding selectivity and a high stability and they were successfully used to determine H2O2 concentration in commercial antiseptic solutions.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.03.087

CO2 capture performance of Ca-Mg acetates at realistic Calcium Looping conditions


Miranda-Pizarro, J; Perejon, A; Valverde, JM; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE
Fuel, 196 (2017) 497-507

ABSTRACT

The Calcium Looping (CaL) process, based on the cyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technique for CO2 capture at reduced energy penalty. In the present work, natural limestone and dolomite have been pretreated with diluted acetic acid to obtain Ca and Ca-Mg mixed acetates, whose CO2 capture performance has been tested at CaL conditions that necessarily imply sorbent regeneration under high CO2 partial pressure. The CaL multicycle capture performance of these sorbents has been compared with that of CaO directly derived from limestone and dolomite calcination. Results show that acetic acid pretreatment of limestone does not lead to an improvement of its capture capacity, although it allows for a higher calcination efficiency to regenerate CaO at reduced temperatures (similar to 900 degrees C) as compared to natural limestone (>similar to 930 degrees C). On the other hand, if a recarbonation stage is introduced before calcination to reactivate the sorbent, a significantly higher residual capture capacity is obtained for the Ca -Mg mixed acetate derived from dolomite as compared to either natural dolomite or limestone. The main reason for this behavior is the enhancement of carbonation in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. It is argued that the presence of inert MgO grains in the mixed acetate with reduced segregation notably promotes solid state diffusion of ions across the porous structure created after recarbonation.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.01.119

Structure evolution in the LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ system by Rietveld analysis


Cordoba, J. M.; Ponce, M.; Sayagues, M. J.
Solis State Ionics, 303 (2017) 132-137

ABSTRACT

The synthesis of LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions perovskite powder was carried out using high-energy milling from the constituent oxides, and further crystallization by high temperature treatment. The compositions of the crystalline phases as a function of x were determined by X-ray powder diffraction using a Rietveld refinement. The relationship between composition and structure was covered. This showed that LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ exists with the rhombohedral structure (R-3c, 167) only below x = 0.3 and with the orthorhombic structure (Pnma, 62) over x = 0.7. The rhombohedral phase coexists with the orthorhombic phase between 0.4 < x < 0.6.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2017.02.020

New findings on thermal degradation properties of fluoropolymers


Liu, SE; Zhou, WL; Yan, QL; Qi, XF; An, T; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Zhao, FQ
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 128 (2017) 675-685

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the thermal degradation properties of Viton A and Fluorel are investigated by both isoconversional and combined kinetic analysis methods using non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique. It has been found that the heating rate has little affect on the degradation residue of Fluorel and Viton A, where around 1.3% char was formed for Fluorel and 3.5% for Viton A. Different from the literature, the decomposition of Viton A should be considered as an overlapped dehydrofluorination and carbon chain scission process, with activation energy of 214 +/- 11 and 268 +/- 13 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The effect of dehydrofluorination on degradation of Fluorel is not so significant due to low content of H, and hence, it could be considered as a single-step mechanism with average activation energy of 264 +/- 14 kJ mol(-1). The thermal stability of Fluorel is much better than that of Viton A, and the predicted half-life is around 218 min for Fluorel and 49 min for Viton A at 420 A degrees C, which are consistent with experimental values. If using a single-step model as in the literature for Viton A, its half-life at 420 A degrees C would be underestimated for > 20%.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s10973-016-5963-z

Synthesis, Characterisation, and Photocatalytic Behaviour of Mesoporous ZnS Nanoparticles Prepared Using By-Product Templating


Emrooz, HBM; Rahmani, AR; Gotor, FJ
Australian Journal of Chemistry, 70 (2017) 1099-1105

ABSTRACT

High surface area mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles (MZN) were obtained with the aid of the by-product of the synthesising reaction. This by-product, namely NaNO3, can be considered as a soft template responsible for the formation of pores. Ethanol and water were chosen as the synthesis media. Ultrasonic waves were used as an accelerator for the synthesis of MZNs. Photocatalytic activities of the synthesised samples for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were investigated under ultraviolet irradiation. Synthesised specimens were characterised using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N-2-physisorption, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the synthesis media has a pronounced effect on the surface properties of the final porous particles by several mechanisms. The specific surface area of the MZN samples synthesised in water and ethanol were determined to be 53 and 201m(2)g(-1), respectively. The difference in the specific surface area was attributed to the weak solvation of S2- ions (Na(2)S5H(2)O in ethanol) and also to the by-product of the synthesis reaction. The photocatalytic behaviour of the mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles synthesised in these two media were investigated and the results have been interpreted with the aid of effective surface area, pore volume, and bandgap energy of the specimens.


Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1071/CH17192

Improving the pollutant removal efficiency of packed-bed plasma reactors incorporating ferroelectric components


Gomez-Ramirez, Ana; Montoro-Damas, Antonio M.; Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose
Chemical Engineering Journal, 314 (2017) 311-319

ABSTRACT

In this work we have studied the plasma removal of air contaminants such as methane, chloroform, toluene and acetone in two parallel plate packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors of different sizes. Removal and energy efficiencies have been determined as a function of the residence time of the contaminated air within the reactor, the kind of packed-bed material (ferroelectrics or classical dielectric materials), the frequency and the incorporation of a ferroelectric plate onto the active electrode together with the inter-electrode ferroelectric pellets filling the gap. Results at low frequency with the small reactor and the ferroelectric plate showed an enhancement in energy efficiency (e.g., it was multiplied by a factor of six and three for toluene and chloroform, respectively) and in removal yield (e.g., it increased from 22% to 52% for chloroform and from 15% to 21% for methane). Such enhancements have been attributed to the higher energy of plasma electrons and a lower reactor capacitance found for this plate-modified configuration. A careful analysis of reaction efficiencies and electron energy distributions for the different investigated conditions and the simulation of the electric field at the necks between ferroelectric/dielectric pellets complete the present study. Overall, the obtained results prove the critical role of the barrier architecture and operating conditions for an enhanced performance of pollution removal processes using DBD systems.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.065

Deep insight into Zr/Fe combination for successful Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 WGS catalyst doping


Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Ioannides, T; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Catalysis Science & Technology, 7 (2017) 1556-1564

ABSTRACT

Efficient promotion of the Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalytic system was achieved by the addition of two different ceria promoters, Zr and Fe. From the exhaustive data analysis, the key features for enhanced catalytic performance and the roles of each doping metal are established. The combination of both doping agents manifests a synergistic effect reflected in noteworthy improvements in H2 reducibility. In addition, the catalyst's doping influences its chemisorptive properties, which is reflected in an increase of the easiness of carbonaceous species desorption, thus leading to superior catalyst resistance toward deactivation.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1039/c6cy02551j

High UV-photocatalytic activity of ZnO and Ag/ZnO synthesized by a facile method


C. Jaramillo-Páez; J.A. Navío; M.C. Hidalgo; M. Macías
Catalysis Today, 284 (2017) 121-128

ABSTRACT

ZnO nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a facile precipitation procedure by mixing aqueous solutions of Zn(II) acetate and dissolved Na2CO3 at pH ca. 7.0 without template addition. We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature in the final surface and structural properties. Photocatalytic studies were performed using two selected substrates, Methyl Orange and Phenol, both as single model substrates and in mixtures of them.

It has been stated that calcination treatments lead to a significant improvement in the photocatalytic properties of the studied samples, even better than TiO2(P25). As expected, the addition of Ag+ during the photocatalytic degradation of MO increases the reaction rate of the degradation of MO, giving a resultant Ag/ZnO photocatalyst which, after recovery, can be reused at least 18 times for the MO degradation tests, being even more photoactive than ZnO.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2016.11.021

Formation of nitrile species on Ag nanostructures supported on a-Al2O3: a new corrosion route for silver exposed to the atmosphere


Pelaez, RJ; Espinos, JP; Afonso, CN
Nanotechnology, 28 (2017) 175709

ABSTRACT

The aging of supported Ag nanostructures upon storage in ambient conditions (air and room temperature) for 20 months has been studied. The samples are produced on glass substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD); first a 15 nm thick buffer layer of amorphous aluminum oxide (a-Al2O3) is deposited, followed by PLD of Ag. The amount of deposited Ag ranges from that leading to a discontinuous layer up to an almost-percolated layer with a thickness of <6 nm. Some regions of the as-grown silver layers are converted, by laser induced dewetting, into round isolated nanoparticles (NPs) with diameters of up to ~25 nm. The plasmonic, structural and chemical properties of both as-grown and laser exposed regions upon aging have been followed using extinction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that the discontinuous as-grown regions are optically and chemically unstable and that the metal becomes oxidized faster, the smaller the amount of Ag. The corrosion leads to the formation of nitrile species due to the reaction between NO x species from the atmosphere adsorbed at the surface of Ag, and hydrocarbons adsorbed in defects at the surface of the a-Al2O3 layer during the deposition of the Ag nanostructures by PLD that migrate to the surface of the metal with time. The nitrile formation thus results in the main oxidation mechanism and inhibits almost completely the formation of sulphate/sulphide. Finally, the optical changes upon aging offer an easy-to-use tool for following the aging process. They are dominated by an enhanced absorption in the UV side of the spectrum and a blue-shift of the surface plasmon resonance that are, respectively, related to the formation of a dielectric overlayer on the Ag nanostructure and changes in the dimensions/features of the nanostructures, both due to the oxidation process.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/aa65c0

Effect of Thermal Pretreatment and Nanosilica Addition on Limestone Performance at Calcium-Looping Conditions for Thermochemical Energy Storage of Concentrated Solar Power


Valverde, Jose Manuel; Barea-Lopez, Manuel; Perejon, Antonio; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E.; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A.
Enery & Fuels, 31 (2017) 4226-4236

ABSTRACT

The share of renewable energies is growing rapidly, partly in response to the urgent need for mitigating CO2 emissions from fossil fuel power plants. However, cheap and efficient large-scale energy storage technologies are not yet available to allow for a significant penetration of renewable energies into the grid. Recently, a potentially low-cost and efficient thermochemical energy storage (TCES) system has been proposed, based on the integration of the calcium-looping (CaL) process into concentrated solar power plants (CSPs). The CaL process relies on the multicycle carbonation/calcination of CaO, which can be derived from calcination of widely available, cheap, and nontoxic natural limestone (CaCO3). This work explores the effect on the multicycle activity of limestone-derived CaO of thermal pretreatment under diverse atmospheres and the addition of nanosilica, which would be expected to hinder CaO grain sintering. Importantly, optimum CaL conditions for CSP energy storage differ radically from those used in the application of the CaL process for CO2 capture. Thus, calcination should be ideally carried out under low CO2 partial pressure at moderate temperature (below 750 degrees C), whereas CO2 concentration and temperature should be high for carbonation in order to maximize thermoelectric efficiency. When limestone is subjected to carbonation/calcination cycles at these conditions, its performance is critically dependent on the type of pretreatment. Our results indicate that the multicycle CaO activity is correlated with the size of the particles and the CaO pore size distribution. Thus, CaO activity is impaired as particle size is increased and/or CaO pore size is decreased. These observations suggest that pore plugging poses a main limitation to the multicycle performance of limestone-derived CaO at the optimum CaL conditions for TCES in CSPs, which is supported by scanning electron microscopy analysis. Strategies to enhance the performance of natural limestone at these conditions should be therefore oriented toward minimizing pore plugging rather than CaO grain sintering, which stands as the main limitation at CaL conditions for CO2 capture.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.6b03364

Mechanochemical Solvent-Free Synthesis of Quaternary Semiconductor Cu-Fe-Sn-S Nanocrystals


Balaz, Peter; Balaz, Matej; Sayagues, Maria J.; Skorvanek, Ivan; Zorkovska, Anna; Dutkova, Erika; Briancin, Jaroslav; Kovac, Jaroslav; Kovac, Jaroslav, Jr.; Shpotyuk, Yaroslav
Nanoscale Research Letters, 12 (2017) art. 256

ABSTRACT

In this study, we demonstrate a one-pot mechanochemical synthesis of the nanocomposite composed of stannite Cu2FeSnS4 and rhodostannite Cu2FeSn3S8 nanocrystals using a planetary ball mill and elemental precursors (Cu, Fe, Sn, S). By this approach, unique nanostructures with interesting properties can be obtained. Methods of XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV-Vis, nitrogen adsorption, SEM, EDX, HRTEM, STEM, and SQUID magnetometry were applied. Quaternary tetragonal phases of stannite and rhodostannite with crystallite sizes 18-19 nm were obtained. The dominant Raman peaks corresponding to the tetragonal stannite structure corresponding to A-symmetry optical modes were identified in the spectra. The bandgap 1.25 eV calculated from UV-Vis absorption spectrum is very well-acceptable value for the application of the synthesized material. The SEM micrographs illustrate the clusters of particles in micron and submicron range. The formation of agglomerates is also illustrated on the TEM micrographs. Weak ferromagnetic properties of the synthesized nanocrystals were documented.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1186/s11671-017-2029-5

Structural and catalytic properties of Au/MgO-type catalysts prepared in aqueous or methanol phase: application in the CO oxidation reaction


Hernandez, Willinton Y.; Alic, Funda; Navarro-Jaen, Sara; Centeno, Miguel A.; Vermeir, Pieter; Van der Voort, Pascal; Verberckmoes, An
Journal of Materials Science, 52 (2017) 4727-4741

ABSTRACT

Au/MgO and Au/Mg(OH)(2)-type catalysts for CO oxidation reaction were prepared by using two different synthesis methods in presence of either an aqueous or methanol phase. The influence of the porous and morphological properties of the starting magnesium oxide supports was analyzed and correlated with the catalytic performances of the final gold-supported catalysts. It was found that the deposition of gold in the presence of methanol as a solvent avoids the total rehydration of the MgO support and maintains the textural and morphological properties of the starting oxides. The support synthesized by a surfactant-assisted hydrothermal route, having a combined meso-macroporous structure (i.e., MgO-P) showed a positive influence on the CO oxidation reaction as it favored the dispersion of gold and the surface-to-gas phase interaction during the catalytic process.


Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s10853-016-0715-9

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