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Effect of the impact energy on the chemical homogeneity of a (Ti,Ta,Nb)(C,N) solid solution obtained via a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction

de La Obra, AG; Gotor, FJ; Chicardi, E
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 708 (2017) 1008-1017


A titanium-tantalum-niobium carbonitride solid solution, (Ti,Ta,Nb)(C,N), was synthesised in a planetary mill via a mechanochemical process that involves a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) from stoichiometric Ti/Ta/Nb/C mixtures that are milled under a nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of the spinning rate of the planetary mill, which determines the impact energy of the milling process, on the ignition time (t(ig)) of the MSR process as well as the chemical homogeneity of the final product was analysed. The results indicated that the dependence of tig on the spinning rate followed a potential function with a potential factor of 4.85, implying a remarkable reduction in the milling time required to induce the self-sustaining reaction at increasing spinning rates (i.e., from 4200 min at 200 rpm to 15 min at 800 rpm). However, the chemical and structural characterisation of the obtained products at ignition without any extra milling treatment indicated that a single solid solution phase was only obtained at the lowest spinning rates (i.e., less than 300 rpm). At increasing rates, the relative amount of the intended solid solution phase continuously decreased, and new undesirable secondary phases were formed. Despite the long milling times required for the milling experiments that were performed at the slowest spinning rates, iron contamination from the milling media was negligible due to the low intensity milling regime.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.03.109

High-temperature creep of carbon nanofiber-reinforced and graphene oxide-reinforced alumina composites sintered by spark plasma sintering

Cano-Crespo, Rafael; Malmal Moshtaghioun, Bibi; Gomez-Garcia, Diego; Dominguez-Rodriguez, Arturo; Moreno, Rodrigo
Ceramics International, 43 (2017) 7136-7141


Alumina (Al2O3) ceramic composites reinforced with either graphene oxide (GO) or carbon nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared using Spark Plasma Sintering. The effects of GO and CNFs on the microstructure and in consequence on their mechanical properties were investigated. The microstructure of the sintered materials have been characterized quantitatively prior to and after the creep experiments in order to discover the deformation mechanism. Graphene-oxide reinforced alumina composites were found to be more creep resistant than carbon nanofibers-reinforced alumina ones or monolithic alumina with the same grain size distribution. In all the cases, grain boundary sliding was identified as the deformation mechanism

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ceramint.2017.02.146

About the enhancement of chemical yield during the atmospheric plasma synthesis of ammonia in a ferroelectric packed bed reactor

Gomez-Ramirez, Ana; Montoro-Damas, Antonio M.; Cotrino, Jose; Lambert, Richard M.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.
Plasma Processes and Polymers, 14 (2017) e1600081


Plasma reactions offer an attractive alternative route for the synthesis of a variety of valuable chemical compounds. Here we investigate the parameters that determine the efficiency of ammonia synthesis in a ferroelectric packed bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor. The effects of varying the operating frequency, the size of the ferroelectric pellets and the inter-electrode distance have been systematically studied. Under optimised conditions nitrogen conversions in excess of 7% were achieved, higher than those previously obtained using DBD reactors. These findings are discussed with respect to variations in the electrical characteristics of the reactor under operating conditions and in the light of emission spectra obtained as a function of reactant flow rates. These encouraging results signpost future developments that could very substantially improve the efficiency of ammonia synthesis by means of DBD technology.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/ppap.201600081

A compact and portable optofluidic device for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing

Lahoz, F; Martin, IR; Walo, D; Gil-Rostra, J; Yubero, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 50 (2017) 21


Optofluidic lasers have been widely investigated over the last few years mainly because they can be easily integrated in sensor devices. However, high power pulse lasers arc required as excitation sources, which, in practice, limit the portability of the system. Trying to overcome some of these limitations, in this paper we propose the combined use of a small CW laser with a Fabry-Perot optofluidic planar microcavity showing high sensitivity and versatility for detection of liquid properties and label-free sensing. Firstly, a fluorescein solution in ethanol is used to demonstrate the high performances of the FP microcavity as a temperature sensor both in the laser (high pump power above laser threshold) and in the fluorescence (low pump power) regimes. A shift in the wavelength of the resonant cavity modes is used to detect changes in the temperature and our results show that high sensitivities could be already obtained using cheap and portable CW diode lasers. In the second part of the paper, the demonstration of this portable device for label-free sensing is illustrated under low CW pumping. The wavelength positions of the optolluidic resonant modes are used to detect glucose concentrations in water solutions using a protein labelled with a fluorescent dye as the active medium.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1088/1361-6463/aa6cdd

Failure mode and effect analysis of a large scale thin-film CIGS photovoltaic module

Delgado-Sanchez, JM; Sanchez-Cortezon, E; Lopez-Lopez, C; Aninat, R; Alba, MD
Engireering failure analysis, 76 (2017) 55-60


The efficiency of thin-film CIGS based cells at the laboratory scale is now getting closer to conventional Silicon technologies. As a consequence, the long-term stability of CIGS is now one of the main challenges left to address in order to assess its potential as an alternative for photovoltaic plants. This paper reports an overview of the critical risks for the commercial viability of the CIGS thin-film technology. The key causes of the potential failures of this technology are determined through the Failure Mode Analysis and Effects (FMEA) methodology. To validate the results obtained from the FMEA, aging tests and outdoor monitoring were also carried out. Based on the results obtained, we argue that the encapsulation material is the main cause of degradation in CIGS modules. 

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.engfailanal.2017.02.004

Non-isothermal Characterization of the Precipitation Hardening of a Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn Alloy

Donoso, E; Dianez, MJ; Criado, JM; Espinoza, R; Mosquera, E
Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A-Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science, 48A (2017) 3090-3095


The precipitation hardening of a Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn alloy has been studied by means of Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), and hardness measurements. The calorimetric curves, in the range of temperatures analyzed, show the presence of one exothermic reaction followed by an endothermic one. The exothermic DSC peak is due to the segregation of Cu2NiZn precipitates and it is associated to a noticeable improvement of the mechanical properties of the alloy. The endothermic effect is associated to the dissolution of the Cu2NiZn precipitates into the copper matrix for restoring the starting Cu-11Ni-19Zn-1Sn homogeneous solid solution. The reaction mechanisms of these processes have been proposed from the kinetic analysis of the exothermic and endothermic DSC signals. The results obtained point out that tin plays a decisive role on the precipitation hardening of the alloy, because age hardening is not observed in the case of a Cu-Ni-Zn ternary alloy of similar composition.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s11661-017-4063-4

Analysis of Ni species formed on zeolites, mesoporous silica and alumina supports and their catalytic behavior in the dry reforming of methane

Drobna, Helena; Kout, Martin; Soltysek, Agnieszka; Gonzalez-Delacruz, Victor M.; Caballero, Alfonso; Capek, Libor
Reaction Kinetics Mechanisms and Catalysis, 121 (2017) 255-274


The presented investigation is focused on the analysis of Ni species formed on microporous (zeolites MFI and FAU) and mesoporous materials (Al-MCM- 41 and SBA-15) and alumina supports and their catalytic behavior in the dry reforming of methane. The paper lays emphasis on the relationship between the catalytic behavior of Ni-based catalysts and their textural/structural properties. Ni-based catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation (11 wt% of Ni) followed by calcination in air and reduction in hydrogen. The properties of Ni-based catalysts were also compared prior and after the catalytic tests. The critical role was played by the high value of the specific surface area and the high strength of the interaction between the Ni species and the support, which both determined the high dispersion and stability of metal Ni-0 particles. Ni-Al-MCM-41 and Ni-SBA-15 showed the values of the conversion of CO2 and CH4 above 90% (stable during 12 h). Slightly lower values of the conversion of CO2 and CH4 were observed over Ni-Al2O3 (also stable during 12 h). In contrast to these materials, Ni-MFI and Ni-FAU exhibited the worse metallic Ni-0 particles dispersion and very bad catalytic behavior.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s11144-017-1149-3

High surface area biopolymeric-ceramic scaffolds for hard tissue engineering

Romero-Sanchez, LB; Borrego-Gonzalez, S; Diaz-Cuenca, A
Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 3 (2017) art UNSP 035012


The development of scaffolds mimicking native bone tissue composition and structure is a challenge in bone tissue engineering. 3D scaffolds with both an interconnected macropore structure and nanotextured surfaces are required. However, 3D scaffolds processed by microfabrication usually lack of nanotextured surface, while nanotextured materials generated by bottom-up nanofabrication are difficult to process conforming scaffolds having well interconnected microsized cavities. In this work, the processing of reticulated (macropore interconnected) structures using nanostructured precursors has been performed to improve the mechanical properties of the scaffolds. The application of a fibrillar collagen coating, using less than 1 wt% collagen per scaffold, has allow a significant increase of the compressive strength while preserving a high surface area and nanopore accessibility. Besides, the fibrillar nanostructured collagen coating promotes hydroxyapatite mineralization. Two different collagen-coating procedures are applied showing interesting differences in terms of mechanical performance.

Junio, 2017 | DOI: 10.1088/2057-1976/aa7001

1-dimensional TiO2 nano-forests as photoanodes for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells fabrication

Salado, M; Oliva-Ramirez, M; Kazim, S; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Ahmad, S
Nano Energy, 35 (2017) 215-222


During the last years, perovskite solar cells have gained increasing interest among the photovoltaic community, in particularly after reaching performances at par with mature thin film based PV. This rapid evolution has been fostered by the compositional engineering of perovskite and new device architectures. In the present work, we report the fabrication of perovskite solar cells based on highly ordered 1-dimensional vertically oriented TiO2 nano-forests. These vertically oriented porous TiO2 photoanodes were deposited by physical vapor deposition in an oblique angle configuration, a method which is scalable to fabricate large area devices. Mixed (MA0.15FA0.85)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 or triple cation Cs0.05(MA0.15FA0.85)0.95Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 based perovskites were then infiltrated into these 1-dimensional nanostructures and power conversion efficiencies of 16.8% along with improved stability was obtained. The devices fabricated using 1D-TiO2 were found to be more stable compare to the classical 3-dimensional TiO2 photoanodes prepared by wet chemistry. These 1-D photoanodes will be of interest for scaling up the technology and in other opto-electrical devices as they can be easily fabricated utilizing industrially adapted methodologies.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.03.034

NO photooxidation with TiO2 photocatalysts modified with gold and platinum

Rodriguez, MJH; Melian, EP; Santiago, DG; Diaz, OG; Navio, JA; Rodriguez, JMD
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 205 (2017) 148-157


In this study, a comparative analysis is made of TiO2 modified with Pt or Au in NO photoxidation under different radiation and humidity conditions. The metals were deposited on the TiO2 surface using two methods, photodeposition and chemical reduction. All catalysts were supported on borosilicate 3.3 plates using a dip-coating technique. These modified photocatalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements (BET), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectrum analysis (XPS). It was found from the XPS results that Pt and oxidized Pt species coexist on the samples obtained by photodeposition and chemical reduction. In the case of Au, though other oxidation states were also detected the dominant oxidation state for both catalysts is Au. TEM results showed most Au-C particles are below 5 nm, whereas for Au-P the nanoparticles are slightly bigger. With UV irradiation, the Pt modified catalysts do not show any significant improvement in NO photocatalytic oxidation in comparison with the unmodified P25. For Au, both modified photocatalysts (Au-P and Au-C) exceed the photocatalytic efficiency of the unmodified P25, with Au-C giving slightly better results. The incorporation of metals on the TiO2 increases its activity in the visible region. 

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.10161/j.apcatb.2016.12.006

Critical Role of Oxygen in Silver-Catalyzed Glaser-Hay Coupling on Ag(100) under Vacuum and in Solution on Ag Particles

Orozco, N; Kyriakou, G; Beaumont, SK; Sanz, JF; Holgado, JP; Taylor, MJ; Espinos, JP; Marquez, AM; Watson, DJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Lambert, RM
ACS Catalysis, 7 (2017) 3113-3120


The essential role of oxygen in enabling heterogeneously catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling of phenylacetylene on Ag(100) was elucidated by STM, laboratory and synchrotron photoemission, and DFT calculations. In the absence of coadsorbed oxygen, phenylacetylene formed well-ordered dense overlayers which, with increasing temperature, desorbed without reaction. In striking contrast, even at 120 K, the presence of oxygen led to immediate and complete disruption of the organic layer due to abstraction of acetylenic hydrogen with formation of a disordered mixed layer containing immobile adsorbed phenylacetylide. At higher temperatures phenylacetylide underwent Glaser–Hay coupling to form highly ordered domains of diphenyldiacetylene that eventually desorbed without decomposition, leaving the bare metal surface. DFT calculations showed that, while acetylenic H abstraction was otherwise an endothermic process, oxygen adatoms triggered a reaction-initiating exothermic pathway leading to OH(a) + phenylacetylide, consistent with the experimental observations. Moreover, it was found that, with a solution of phenylacetylene in nonane and in the presence of O2, Ag particles catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling with high selectivity. Rigorous exclusion of oxygen from the reactor strongly suppressed the catalytic reaction. Interestingly, too much oxygen lowers the selectivity toward diphenyldiacetylene. Thus, vacuum studies and theoretical calculations revealed the key role of oxygen in the reaction mechanism, subsequently borne out by catalytic studies with Ag particles that confirmed the presence of oxygen as a necessary and sufficient condition for the coupling reaction to occur. The direct relevance of model studies to a mechanistic understanding of coupling reactions under conditions of practical catalysis was reaffirmed.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b00431

Energy-Sensitive Ion- and Cathode-Luminescent Radiation-Beam Monitors Based on Multilayer Thin-Film Designs

Gil-Rostra, Jorge; Ferrer, Francisco J.; Pedro Espinos, Juan; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Yubero, Francisco
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (2017) 16313-16320


A multilayer luminescent design concept is presented to develop energy sensitive radiation-beam monitors on the basis of colorimetric analysis. Each luminescent layer within the stack consists of rare-earth-doped transparent oxides of optical quality and a characteristic luminescent emission under excitation with electron or ion beams. For a given type of particle beam (electron, protons, alpha particles, etc.), its penetration depth and therefore its energy loss at a particular buried layer within the multilayer stack depend on the energy of the initial beam. The intensity of the luminescent response of each layer is proportional to the energy deposited by the radiation beam within the layer, so characteristic color emission will be achieved if different phosphors are considered in the layers of the luminescent stack. Phosphor doping, emission efficiency, layer thickness, and multilayer structure design are key parameters relevant to achieving a broad colorimetric response. Two case examples are designed and fabricated to illustrate the capabilities of these new types of detector to evaluate the kinetic energy of either electron beams of a few kilo-electron volts or a particles of alpha few mega-electron volts.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b01175

Design and Realization of a Novel Optically Disordered Material: A Demonstration of a Mie Glass

Miranda-Munoz, Jose M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Miguez, Hernan
Advanced Optical Materials, 5 (2017) art. 1700025


Herein, a diffusive material presenting optical disorder is introduced, which represents an example of a Mie glass. Comprising spherical crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles randomly dispersed in a mesoporous TiO2 matrix, it is proved that the scattering of light in this inhomogeneous solid can be predicted in an unprecedented manner from single-particle considerations employing Mie theory. To that aim, a study of the dependence of the key parameters employed is performed to describe light propagation in random media, i.e., the scattering mean free path and the transport mean free path, as a function of the size and concentration of the spherical inclusions based on a comparison between experimental results and analytical calculations. It is also demonstrated that Mie glasses enable enhanced fluorescence intensity due to a combined absorptance enhancement of the excitation light combined with an improved outcoupling of the emitted light. The method offers the possibility to perform a deterministic design for the realization of a light diffuser with tailor-made scattering properties.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201700025

Non-enzymatic hydrogen peroxide detection at NiO nanoporous thin film-electrodes prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles

Salazar, Pedro; Rico, Victor; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.
Electrochimica Acta, 235 (2017) 534-542


In this work we report a non-enzymatic sensor for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection based on nanostructured nickel thin films prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles. Porous thin films deposited on ITO substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microcopy (SEMs), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical techniques such as Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and Constant Potential Amperometry (CPA). The microstructure of the thin films consisted of inclined and separated Ni nanocolumns forming a porous thin layer of about 500 nm thickness. Prior to their use, the films surface was electrochemically modified and the chemical state studied by CV and XPS analysis. These techniques also showed that Ni2+/Ni3+ species were involved in the electrochemical oxidation and detection of H2O2 in alkaline medium. Main analytical parameters such as sensitivity (807 mA M(-1)cm(-2)), limit of detection (3.22 mu M) and linear range (0.011-2.4 mM) were obtained under optimal operation conditions. Sensors depicted an outstanding selectivity and a high stability and they were successfully used to determine H2O2 concentration in commercial antiseptic solutions.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.electacta.2017.03.087

CO2 capture performance of Ca-Mg acetates at realistic Calcium Looping conditions

Miranda-Pizarro, J; Perejon, A; Valverde, JM; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE
Fuel, 196 (2017) 497-507


The Calcium Looping (CaL) process, based on the cyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technique for CO2 capture at reduced energy penalty. In the present work, natural limestone and dolomite have been pretreated with diluted acetic acid to obtain Ca and Ca-Mg mixed acetates, whose CO2 capture performance has been tested at CaL conditions that necessarily imply sorbent regeneration under high CO2 partial pressure. The CaL multicycle capture performance of these sorbents has been compared with that of CaO directly derived from limestone and dolomite calcination. Results show that acetic acid pretreatment of limestone does not lead to an improvement of its capture capacity, although it allows for a higher calcination efficiency to regenerate CaO at reduced temperatures (similar to 900 degrees C) as compared to natural limestone (>similar to 930 degrees C). On the other hand, if a recarbonation stage is introduced before calcination to reactivate the sorbent, a significantly higher residual capture capacity is obtained for the Ca -Mg mixed acetate derived from dolomite as compared to either natural dolomite or limestone. The main reason for this behavior is the enhancement of carbonation in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. It is argued that the presence of inert MgO grains in the mixed acetate with reduced segregation notably promotes solid state diffusion of ions across the porous structure created after recarbonation.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2017.01.119

Structure evolution in the LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ system by Rietveld analysis

Cordoba, J. M.; Ponce, M.; Sayagues, M. J.
Solis State Ionics, 303 (2017) 132-137


The synthesis of LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) solid solutions perovskite powder was carried out using high-energy milling from the constituent oxides, and further crystallization by high temperature treatment. The compositions of the crystalline phases as a function of x were determined by X-ray powder diffraction using a Rietveld refinement. The relationship between composition and structure was covered. This showed that LaMn1 − xFexO3 + δ exists with the rhombohedral structure (R-3c, 167) only below x = 0.3 and with the orthorhombic structure (Pnma, 62) over x = 0.7. The rhombohedral phase coexists with the orthorhombic phase between 0.4 < x < 0.6.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.ssi.2017.02.020

New findings on thermal degradation properties of fluoropolymers

Liu, SE; Zhou, WL; Yan, QL; Qi, XF; An, T; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Zhao, FQ
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 128 (2017) 675-685


In this paper, the thermal degradation properties of Viton A and Fluorel are investigated by both isoconversional and combined kinetic analysis methods using non-isothermal thermogravimetry technique. It has been found that the heating rate has little affect on the degradation residue of Fluorel and Viton A, where around 1.3% char was formed for Fluorel and 3.5% for Viton A. Different from the literature, the decomposition of Viton A should be considered as an overlapped dehydrofluorination and carbon chain scission process, with activation energy of 214 +/- 11 and 268 +/- 13 kJ mol(-1), respectively. The effect of dehydrofluorination on degradation of Fluorel is not so significant due to low content of H, and hence, it could be considered as a single-step mechanism with average activation energy of 264 +/- 14 kJ mol(-1). The thermal stability of Fluorel is much better than that of Viton A, and the predicted half-life is around 218 min for Fluorel and 49 min for Viton A at 420 A degrees C, which are consistent with experimental values. If using a single-step model as in the literature for Viton A, its half-life at 420 A degrees C would be underestimated for > 20%.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1007/s10973-016-5963-z

Synthesis, Characterisation, and Photocatalytic Behaviour of Mesoporous ZnS Nanoparticles Prepared Using By-Product Templating

Emrooz, HBM; Rahmani, AR; Gotor, FJ
Australian Journal of Chemistry, 70 (2017) 1099-1105


High surface area mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles (MZN) were obtained with the aid of the by-product of the synthesising reaction. This by-product, namely NaNO3, can be considered as a soft template responsible for the formation of pores. Ethanol and water were chosen as the synthesis media. Ultrasonic waves were used as an accelerator for the synthesis of MZNs. Photocatalytic activities of the synthesised samples for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) were investigated under ultraviolet irradiation. Synthesised specimens were characterised using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, N-2-physisorption, and FT-IR spectroscopy. Results indicated that the synthesis media has a pronounced effect on the surface properties of the final porous particles by several mechanisms. The specific surface area of the MZN samples synthesised in water and ethanol were determined to be 53 and 201m(2)g(-1), respectively. The difference in the specific surface area was attributed to the weak solvation of S2- ions (Na(2)S5H(2)O in ethanol) and also to the by-product of the synthesis reaction. The photocatalytic behaviour of the mesoporous ZnS nanoparticles synthesised in these two media were investigated and the results have been interpreted with the aid of effective surface area, pore volume, and bandgap energy of the specimens.

Mayo, 2017 | DOI: 10.1071/CH17192

Improving the pollutant removal efficiency of packed-bed plasma reactors incorporating ferroelectric components

Gomez-Ramirez, Ana; Montoro-Damas, Antonio M.; Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose
Chemical Engineering Journal, 314 (2017) 311-319


In this work we have studied the plasma removal of air contaminants such as methane, chloroform, toluene and acetone in two parallel plate packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors of different sizes. Removal and energy efficiencies have been determined as a function of the residence time of the contaminated air within the reactor, the kind of packed-bed material (ferroelectrics or classical dielectric materials), the frequency and the incorporation of a ferroelectric plate onto the active electrode together with the inter-electrode ferroelectric pellets filling the gap. Results at low frequency with the small reactor and the ferroelectric plate showed an enhancement in energy efficiency (e.g., it was multiplied by a factor of six and three for toluene and chloroform, respectively) and in removal yield (e.g., it increased from 22% to 52% for chloroform and from 15% to 21% for methane). Such enhancements have been attributed to the higher energy of plasma electrons and a lower reactor capacitance found for this plate-modified configuration. A careful analysis of reaction efficiencies and electron energy distributions for the different investigated conditions and the simulation of the electric field at the necks between ferroelectric/dielectric pellets complete the present study. Overall, the obtained results prove the critical role of the barrier architecture and operating conditions for an enhanced performance of pollution removal processes using DBD systems.

Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.065

Deep insight into Zr/Fe combination for successful Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 WGS catalyst doping

Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Ioannides, T; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Catalysis Science & Technology, 7 (2017) 1556-1564


Efficient promotion of the Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalytic system was achieved by the addition of two different ceria promoters, Zr and Fe. From the exhaustive data analysis, the key features for enhanced catalytic performance and the roles of each doping metal are established. The combination of both doping agents manifests a synergistic effect reflected in noteworthy improvements in H2 reducibility. In addition, the catalyst's doping influences its chemisorptive properties, which is reflected in an increase of the easiness of carbonaceous species desorption, thus leading to superior catalyst resistance toward deactivation.

Abril, 2017 | DOI: 10.1039/c6cy02551j