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Diverse Applications of Nanomedicine

Pelaz, Beatriz; Alexiou, Christoph; Alvarez -Puebla, Ramon A.; Alves, Frauke; Andrews, Anne M.; Ashraf, Sumaira; Balogh, Lajos P.; Ballerini, Laura; Bestetti, Alessandra; Brendel, Cornelia; Bosi, Susanna; Carril, Monica; Chan, Warren C. W.; Chen, Chunying
The design and use of materials in the nanoscale size range for addressing medical and health-related issues continues to receive increasing interest. Research in nanomedicine spans a multitude of areas, including drug delivery, vaccine development, antibacterial, diagnosis and imaging tools, wearable devices, implants, high-throughput screening platforms, etc. using biological, nonbiological, biomimetic, or hybrid materials. Many of these developments are starting to be translated into viable clinical products. Here, we provide an overview of recent developments in nanomedicine and highlight the current challenges and upcoming opportunities for the field and translation to the clinic.
ACS Nano, 11 (2017) 2312-2381 | DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.6b06040

1-dimensional TiO2 nano-forests as photoanodes for efficient and stable perovskite solar cells fabrication

Salado, M; Oliva-Ramirez, M; Kazim, S; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Ahmad, S
During the last years, perovskite solar cells have gained increasing interest among the photovoltaic community, in particularly after reaching performances at par with mature thin film based PV. This rapid evolution has been fostered by the compositional engineering of perovskite and new device architectures. In the present work, we report the fabrication of perovskite solar cells based on highly ordered 1-dimensional vertically oriented TiO2 nano-forests. These vertically oriented porous TiO2 photoanodes were deposited by physical vapor deposition in an oblique angle configuration, a method which is scalable to fabricate large area devices. Mixed (MA0.15FA0.85)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 or triple cation Cs0.05(MA0.15FA0.85)0.95Pb(I0.85Br0.15)3 based perovskites were then infiltrated into these 1-dimensional nanostructures and power conversion efficiencies of 16.8% along with improved stability was obtained. The devices fabricated using 1D-TiO2 were found to be more stable compare to the classical 3-dimensional TiO2 photoanodes prepared by wet chemistry. These 1-D photoanodes will be of interest for scaling up the technology and in other opto-electrical devices as they can be easily fabricated utilizing industrially adapted methodologies.
Nano Energy, 35 (2017) 215-222 | DOI: 10.1016/j.nanoen.2017.03.034

Lead-Free Polycrystalline Ferroelectric Nanowires with Enhanced Curie Temperature

Datta, Anuja; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E.; Al Orabi, Rabih Al Rahal; Calahorra, Yonatan; Ou, Canlin; Sahonta, Suman-Lata; Fornari, Marco; Kar-Narayan, Sohini
Ferroelectrics are important technological materials with wide-ranging applications in electronics, communication, health, and energy. While lead-based ferroelectrics have remained the predominant mainstay of industry for decades, environmentally friendly lead-free alternatives are limited due to relatively low Curie temperatures (T-C) and/or high cost in many cases. Efforts have been made to enhance T-C through strain engineering, often involving energy-intensive and expensive fabrication of thin epitaxial films on lattice-mismatched substrates. Here, a relatively simple and scalable sol-gel synthesis route to fabricate polycrystalline (Ba0.85Ca0.15)(Zr0.1Ti0.9)O-3 nanowires within porous templates is presented, with an observed enhancement of T-C up to similar to 300 degrees C as compared to similar to 90 degrees C in the bulk. By combining experiments and theoretical calculations, this effect is attributed to the volume reduction in the template-grown nanowires that modifies the balance between different structural instabilities. The results offer a cost-effective solution-based approach for strain-tuning in a promising lead-free ferroelectric system, thus widening their current applicability.
Advanced Functional Materials, 27 (2017) 1701169 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201701169

Cobalt Carbide Identified as Catalytic Site for the Dehydrogenation of Ethanol to Acetaldehyde

A. Rodríguez-Gómez; J.P. Holgado; A. Caballero
Two cobalt catalysts, Co/SBA-15 and Co/SiO2, have been studied in steam reforming of ethanol (SRE). Besides the steam reforming products, ethoxide dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde is observed as one of the main reactions. Although by hydrogen treatment cobalt is reduced to the metallic state, under SRE conditions, a phase appears that has been identified as cobalt carbide and correlates with acetaldehyde production. These findings provide insights about the catalytic sites, for SRE, in cobalt catalysts. Comparison with previous results shows that these conclusions are not translatable to other cobalt catalysts, stressing the importance of the support on the catalytic behavior of cobalt.
ACS Catalysis, 7 (2017) 5243-5247 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b01348

Critical Role of Oxygen in Silver-Catalyzed Glaser-Hay Coupling on Ag(100) under Vacuum and in Solution on Ag Particles

Orozco, N; Kyriakou, G; Beaumont, SK; Sanz, JF; Holgado, JP; Taylor, MJ; Espinos, JP; Marquez, AM; Watson, DJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Lambert, RM
The essential role of oxygen in enabling heterogeneously catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling of phenylacetylene on Ag(100) was elucidated by STM, laboratory and synchrotron photoemission, and DFT calculations. In the absence of coadsorbed oxygen, phenylacetylene formed well-ordered dense overlayers which, with increasing temperature, desorbed without reaction. In striking contrast, even at 120 K, the presence of oxygen led to immediate and complete disruption of the organic layer due to abstraction of acetylenic hydrogen with formation of a disordered mixed layer containing immobile adsorbed phenylacetylide. At higher temperatures phenylacetylide underwent Glaser–Hay coupling to form highly ordered domains of diphenyldiacetylene that eventually desorbed without decomposition, leaving the bare metal surface. DFT calculations showed that, while acetylenic H abstraction was otherwise an endothermic process, oxygen adatoms triggered a reaction-initiating exothermic pathway leading to OH(a) + phenylacetylide, consistent with the experimental observations. Moreover, it was found that, with a solution of phenylacetylene in nonane and in the presence of O2, Ag particles catalyzed Glaser–Hay coupling with high selectivity. Rigorous exclusion of oxygen from the reactor strongly suppressed the catalytic reaction. Interestingly, too much oxygen lowers the selectivity toward diphenyldiacetylene. Thus, vacuum studies and theoretical calculations revealed the key role of oxygen in the reaction mechanism, subsequently borne out by catalytic studies with Ag particles that confirmed the presence of oxygen as a necessary and sufficient condition for the coupling reaction to occur. The direct relevance of model studies to a mechanistic understanding of coupling reactions under conditions of practical catalysis was reaffirmed.
ACS Catalysis, 7 (2017) 3113-3120 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b00431

The role of cobalt hydroxide in deactivation of thin film Co-based catalysts for sodium borohydride hydrolysis

Paladini, M; Arzac, GM; Godinho, V; Hufschmidt, D; de Haro, MCJ; Beltran, AM; Fernandez, A
Deactivation of a Co catalyst prepared as thin film by magnetron sputtering was studied for the sodium borohydride (SB) hydrolysis reaction under different conditions. Under high SB concentration in single run experiments, the formation of a B-O passivating layer was observed after 1.5 and 24 h use. This layer was not responsible for the catalyst deactivation. Instead, a peeling-off mechanism produced the loss of cobalt. This peeling-off mechanism was further studied in cycling experiments (14 cycles) under low SB concentrations. Ex-situ study of catalyst surface after use and solid reaction products (precipitates) was performed by X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The presence of cobalt hydroxide and oxyhydroxide was detected as major components on the catalyst surface after use and as precipitates in the supernatant solutions after washing. Cobalt borate, cobalt carbonate and oxycarbonate were also formed but in lesser amounts. These oxidized cobalt species were formed and further detached from the catalyst at the end of the reaction and/or during catalyst washing by decomposition of the unstable in-situ formed cobalt boride. Leaching of cobalt soluble species was negligible. Thin film mechanical detachment was also found but in a smaller extent. To study the influence of catalyst composition on deactivation processes, cycling experiments were performed with Co-B and Co-C catalysts, also prepared as thin films. We found that the deactivation mechanism proposed by us for the pure Co catalyst also occurred for a different pure Co (prepared at higher pressure) and the Co-B and Co-C samples in our experimental conditions. 
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 210 (2017) 342-351 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.04.005

Gold promoted Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 catalysts prepared from hydrotalcite precursors: Advanced materials for the WGS reaction

Santos, JL; Reina, TR; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Outstanding catalysts for the water was shift reaction are reported in this work. The combination of gold nanoparticles with Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 prepared from hydrotalcite-like precursors leads to very promising systems for pure hydrogen production. Full CO conversion is reached at temperatures as low as 180 degrees C. The key point seems to be the cooperation of Au and Cu and the optimal metal-oxide contact derived from the synthesis method. The high activity of gold for low temperature CO oxidation and the suitability of copper for the WGS results in a perfect synergy. Moreover the materials developed in this work present good stability and tolerance towards start/stop cycles an indispensable requisite for a realistic application in an integrated hydrogen fuel processor.
Applied Catalysis B-Envionmental, 201 (2017) 310-317 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.08.017

Pt-impregnated catalysts on powdery SiC and other commercial supports for the combustion of hydrogen under oxidant conditions

Arzac, G. M.; Montes, O.; Fernandez, A.
We report the study of the catalytic hydrogen combustion over Pt-impregnated powdery silicon carbide (SiC) using H2PtCl6 as precursor. The reaction was conducted in excess of oxygen. beta-SiC was selected for the study because of its thermal conductivity, mechanical properties, chemical inertness and surface area. The obtained Pt particles over SiC were medium size (average particle diameter of 5 nm for 0.5 wt% Pt). The activity of the Pt-impregnated catalyst over SiC was compared to those obtained in oxidized form over TiO2 and Al2O3 commercial supports (Pt particles very small in size, average particle diameter of 1 nm for 0.5 wt% Pt in both cases). The case of a SiO2 support was also discussed. Those Pt/SiC particles were the most active because of their higher contribution of surface Pt, indicating that partially oxidized surfaces have better activity than those totally oxidized in these conditions. SiC was modified with an acid treatment and thus bigger (average particle diameter of 7 nm for 0.5 wt% Pt) and more active Pt particles were obtained. Durability of the SiC and TiO2 supported catalysts was tested upon 5 cycles and both have shown to be durable and even more active than initially. Exposure to the oxidative reaction mixture activates the catalysts and the effect is more pronounced for the completely oxidized particles. This is due to the surface oxygen chemisorption which activates catalystsi surface.
Applied Catalysis B-Envionmental, 201 (2017) 391-399 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.08.042

Structuring Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 WGS catalyst: Introduction of buffer layer

Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Laguna, OH; Martinez, LM; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This work is devoted to the development of novel structured catalytic system for WGS reaction. The new concept is related to the presence of a pre-catalytic "buffer" layer formed by WGS-inert oxide, i.e. not involved in CO conversion, but able to increase the number of participating sites in water dissociation step during the reaction. The performance of the proposed systems appears to depend strongly on the stream composition, being its effect beneficial in highly reducing atmospheres making it ideal for cleanup application. An increment of the partial kinetic order for water species is observed and reveals the key role of the water activation for superior catalytic behavior. 
Applied Catalysis B-Envionmental, 200 (2017) 420-427 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.07.039

Study of the E. coli elimination from urban wastewater over photocatalysts based on metallized TiO2

Murcia, JJ; Avila-Martinez, EG; Rojas, H; Navio, JA; Hidalgo, MC
In this study, a series of photocatalysts based on TiO2 was tested in the elimination of Escherichia coli (E. coli) from urban wastewater. Firstly, TiO2 obtained by sol-gel method was modified by sulfation, and then gold or platinum nanoparticles were photodeposited on sulfated titania surface. Platinized samples were also prepared with different Pt content of 0.5 and 2 wt.%. The samples thus obtained were extensively characterized and it was found that sulfation considerably increases the S-BET value of TiO2 and promotes the anatase phase formation; it was also found that 0.5 wt.% Pt-TiO2 sample presents the lowest noble metal particle size and the best particle dispersion. All the photocatalysts synthesized have shown bactericidal effect and the results obtained by using bare and metalized TiO2 were considerably better than the results obtained with the commercial TiO2 P25 Evonic. Different light intensities were also evaluated in the photocatalytic tests and it was found that 120 W/m(2) leads to obtain the highest E. coli elimination from wastewater samples; however no total elimination of E. coli or other species of bacteria was achieved even after 5 h of photocatalytic treatment without catalyst. Total elimination of the E. coli was achieved after 3 h of photocatalytic reaction by using 120 Wim(2) of light intensity and 2 wt.% Pt-TiO2 as photocatalyst; no bacterial regrowth was observed even after 72 h. 
Applied Catalysis B-Envionmental, 200 (2017) 469-476 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.07.045

Impact of moisture on efficiency-determining electronic processes in perovskite solar cells

Salado, Manuel; Contreras-Bernal, Lidia; Calio, Laura; Todinova, Anna; Lopez-Santos, Carmen; Ahmad, Shahzada; Borras, Ana; Idigoras, Jesus; Anta, Juan A.
Moisture-induced degradation in perovskite solar cells was thoroughly investigated by structural (SEM, EDS, XRD and XPS) and device characterization (impedance and intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy) techniques. Both the influence of the perovskite composition and the nature of the hole selective material were analyzed. The degradation rate was found to be significantly slower for mixed perovskites and P3HT-based devices. However, for a fixed degradation degree (defined as a 50% drop from the initial photocurrent), all configurations show similar features in small-perturbation analysis. Thus, a new mid-frequency signal appears in the impedance response, which seems to be related to charge accumulation at the interfaces. In addition, faster recombination, with a more important surface contribution, and slower transport were clearly inferred from our results. Both features can be associated with the deterioration of the contacts and the formation of a higher number of grain boundaries.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5 (2017) 10917-10927 | DOI: 10.1039/c7ta02264f

Materials chemistry approaches to the control of the optical features of perovskite solar cells

Calvo, Mauricio E.
Perovskite solar cells have revolutionized the field of photovoltaics. Apart from their impressive photo-conversion efficiencies, the ease of their fabrication – principally when carried out by solution processing – has permitted addition of new functionalities to the photovoltaic cell. Some of these features are related to the optical properties. In this review, the different materials chemistry approaches that allow controlling the spectral absorption of ABX3 perovskite layers and the changes that they produce in the visual aspect of the solar cell will be covered. These modifications can be done either by playing with the composition of the precursors or by integrating different types of nanostructures. Spectral bandgap tuning, semitransparency, color and enhancement of light absorption are examples of how these modifications operate in the core of ABX3 perovskite solar cells. These optical features bring benefits in terms of photo-conversion efficiencies or else in the aesthetical integration of perovskite solar cells with architectonic elements for building integrated photovoltaics. Additionally, surface passivation approaches are covered to show its effect over the photo-conversion efficiency and stability of the cell.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 5 (2017) 20561-20578 | DOI: 10.1039/c7ta05666d

Biomorphic ceramics from wood-derived precursors

Ramirez-Rico, J.; Martinez-Fernandez, J.; Singh, M.
Materials development is driven by microstructural complexity and, in many cases, inspired by biological systems such as bones, shells and wood. In one approach, one selects the main microstructural features responsible for improved properties and design processes to obtain materials with such microstructures (continuous-fibre-reinforced ceramics, porous ceramics, fibrous ceramic monoliths, etc.). In a different approach, it is possible to use natural materials directly as microstructural templates. Biomorphic ceramics are produced from natural and renewable resources (wood or wood-derived products). A wide variety of SiC-based ceramics can be fabricated by infiltration of silicon or silicon alloys into cellulose-derived carbonaceous templates, providing a low-cost route to advanced ceramic materials with near-net shape potential and amenable to rapid prototyping. These materials have tailorable microstructure and properties, and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by advanced ceramic processing approaches. This review aims to be a comprehensive description of the development of bioSiC ceramics: from wood templates and their microstructure to potential applications of bioSiC materials.
International Materials Reviews, 62 (2017) Issue 8 | DOI: 10.1080/09506608.2017.1354429

Multicolored Emission and Lasing in DCM-Adamantane Plasma Nanocomposite Optical Films

Alcaire, M; Cerdan, L; Zamarro, FL; Aparicio, FJ; Gonzalez, JC; Ferrer, FJ; Borras, A; Espinos, JP; Barranco, A
We present a low-temperature versatile protocol for the fabrication of plasma nanocomposite thin films to act as tunable emitters and optical gain media. The films are obtained by the remote plasma-assisted deposition of a 4-(dicyano-methylene)-2-methy1-6-(4-dimethylamino-styry1)-4Hpyran (DCM) laser dye alongside adamantane. The experimental parameters that determine the concentration of the dye in the films and their optical properties, including light absorption, the refractive index, and luminescence, are evaluated. Amplified spontaneous emission experiments in the DCM/adamantane nano composite waveguides show the improvement of the copolymerized nano composites' properties compared to films that were deposited with DCM as the sole precursor. Moreover, one-dimensional distributed feed-back laser emission is demonstrated and characterized in some of the nanocomposite films that are studied. These results open new paths for the optimization of the optical and lasing properties of plasma nanocomposite polymers, which can be straightforwardly integrated as active components in optoelectronic devices.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (2017) 8948-8959 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b01534

Energy-Sensitive Ion- and Cathode-Luminescent Radiation-Beam Monitors Based on Multilayer Thin-Film Designs

Gil-Rostra, Jorge; Ferrer, Francisco J.; Pedro Espinos, Juan; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Yubero, Francisco
A multilayer luminescent design concept is presented to develop energy sensitive radiation-beam monitors on the basis of colorimetric analysis. Each luminescent layer within the stack consists of rare-earth-doped transparent oxides of optical quality and a characteristic luminescent emission under excitation with electron or ion beams. For a given type of particle beam (electron, protons, alpha particles, etc.), its penetration depth and therefore its energy loss at a particular buried layer within the multilayer stack depend on the energy of the initial beam. The intensity of the luminescent response of each layer is proportional to the energy deposited by the radiation beam within the layer, so characteristic color emission will be achieved if different phosphors are considered in the layers of the luminescent stack. Phosphor doping, emission efficiency, layer thickness, and multilayer structure design are key parameters relevant to achieving a broad colorimetric response. Two case examples are designed and fabricated to illustrate the capabilities of these new types of detector to evaluate the kinetic energy of either electron beams of a few kilo-electron volts or a particles of alpha few mega-electron volts.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (2017) 16313-16320 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b01175

Facile Synthesis of Hybrid Organic–Inorganic Perovskite Microcubes of Optical Quality Using Polar Antisolvents

Li, Yuelong; Galisteo-Lopez, Juan F.; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Miguez, Hernan
Herein, we demonstrate a synthetic approach producing highly crystalline methylammonium lead bromide perovskite (MAPbBr3) microcubes at room temperature by injecting a perovskite precursor solution into an environmentally friendly antisolvent (isopropyl alcohol). Confirmed by X-ray and electron diffraction, as well as electron microscopy, these MAPbBr3 microcubes are single crystals and have perfect cubic structure, with sizes varying between 1 and 15 μm depending on the synthesis conditions. The stoichiometry of the MAPbBr3 crystal is proven by energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Finally, optical analysis carried out by means of laser scanning confocal microscopy evidences how the crystalline quality of the microcubes translates into a homogeneous photoluminescence throughout the cube volume.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 9 (2017) 35505-35510 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.7b08431

Plasma assisted deposition of single and multistacked TiO2 hierarchical nanotube photoanodes

Filippin, AN; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Idigoras, J; Rojas, TC; Barranco, A; Anta, JA; Borras, A
We present herein an evolved methodology for the growth of nanocrystalline hierarchical nanotubes combining physical vapor deposition of organic nanowires (ONWs) and plasma enhanced chemical vacuum deposition of anatase TiO2 layers. The ONWs act as vacuum removable 1D and 3D templates, with the whole process occurring at temperatures ranging from RT to 250 degrees C. As a result, a high density of hierarchical nanotubes with tunable diameter, length and tailored wall microstructures are formed on a variety of processable substrates as metal and metal oxide films or nanoparticles including transparent conductive oxides. The reiteration of the process leads to the development of an unprecedented 3D nanoarchitecture formed by stacking the layers of hierarchical TiO2 nanotubes. As a proof of concept, we present the superior performance of the 3D nanoarchitecture as a photoanode within an excitonic solar cell with efficiencies as high as 4.69% for a nominal thickness of the anatase layer below 2.75 mu m. Mechanical stability and straightforward implementation in devices are demonstrated at the same time. The process is extendable to other functional oxides fabricated by plasma-assisted methods with readily available applications in energy harvesting and storage, catalysis and nanosensing.
Nanoscale, 9 (2017) 8133-8141 | DOI: 10.1039/c7nr00923b

High vacuum synthesis and ambient stability of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons

Fairbrother, A; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Lauber, B; Shorubalko, I; Ruffieux, P; Hintermann, T; Fasel, R
Carbon-based nanomaterials such as graphene are at a crucial point in application development, and their promising potential, which has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale, must be translated to an industrial setting for commercialization. Graphene nanoribbons in particular overcome one limitation of graphene in some electronic applications because they exhibit a sizeable bandgap. However, synthesis of bottom-up graphene nanoribbons is most commonly performed under ultra-high vacuum conditions, which are costly and difficult to maintain in a manufacturing environment. Additionally, little is known about the stability of graphene nanoribbons under ambient conditions or during transfer to technologically relevant substrates and subsequent device processing. This work addresses some of these challenges, first by synthesizing bottom-up graphene nanoribbons under easily obtained high vacuum conditions and identifying water and oxygen as the residual gases responsible for interfering with proper coupling during the polymerization step. And second, by using Raman spectroscopy to probe the stability of nanoribbons during storage under ambient conditions, after transfer to arbitrary substrates, and after fabrication of field-effect transistor devices, which shows structurally intact nanoribbons even several months after synthesis. These findings demonstrate the potential of graphene nanoribbon technologies by addressing some limitations which might arise in their commercialization.
Nanoscale, 9 (2017) 2785-2792 | DOI: 10.1039/C6NR08975E

Monitoring the Reaction Mechanism in Model Biogas Reforming by InSitu Transient and Steady-State DRIFTS Measurements

Bobadilla, LF; Garcilaso, V; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
In this work, the reforming of model biogas was investigated on a Rh/MgAl2O4 catalyst. In situ transient and steady-state diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) measurements were used to gain insight into the reaction mechanism involved in the activation of CH4 and CO2. It was found that the reaction proceeds through of an initial pathway in which methane and CO2 are both dissociated on Rh metallic sites and additionally a bifunctional mechanism in which methane is activated on Rh sites and CO2 is activated on the basic sites of the support surface via a formate intermediate by H-assisted CO2 decomposition. Moreover, this plausible mechanism is able to explain why the observed apparent activation energy of CO2 is much lower than that of CH4. Our results suggest that CO2 dissociation facilitates CH4activation, because the oxygen-adsorbed species formed in the decomposition of CO2 are capable of reacting with the CHx species derived from methane decomposition.
Chemsuschem, 10 (2017) 1193-1201 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601379

Towards Extending Solar Cell Lifetimes: Addition of a Fluorous Cation to Triple Cation-Based Perovskite Films

Salado, M; Fernandez, MA; Holgado, JP; Kazim, S; Nazeeruddin, MK; Dyson, PJ; Ahmad, S
Organohalide perovskites have emerged as highly promising replacements for thin-film solar cells. However, their poor stability under ambient conditions remains problematic, hindering commercial exploitation. The addition of a fluorous-functionalized imidazolium cation during the preparation of a highly stable cesium-based mixed perovskite material Cs-0.05(MA(0.15)FA(0.85))(0.95)Pb(I0.85Br0.15)(3) (MA= methylammonium; FA= formamidinium) has been shown to influence its stability. The resulting materials, which vary according to the amount of the fluorous-functionalized imidazolium cation present during fabrication, display a prolonged tolerance to atmospheric humidity (> 100 days) along with power conversion efficiencies exceeding 16%. This work provides a general route that can be implemented in a variety of perovskites and highlights a promising way to increase perovskite solar cell stability.
Chemsuschem, 10 (2017) 3846-3853 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700797

The Oxy-CaL process: A novel CO2 capture system by integrating partial oxy-combustion with the Calcium-Looping process

Ortiz, C; Valverde, JM; Chacartegui, R; Benitez-Guerrero, M; Perejon, A; Romeo, LM
This paper proposes a novel CO2 capture technology from the integration of partial oxy-combustion and the Calcium -Looping capture process based on the multicycle carbonation/calcination of limestone derived CaO. The concentration of CO2 in the carbonator reactor is increased by means of partial oxycombustion, which enhances the multicycle CaO conversion according to thermogravimetric analysis results carried out in our work, thus improving the CO2 capture efficiency. On the other hand, energy consumption for partial oxy-combustion is substantially reduced as compared to total oxy-combustion. All in all, process simulations indicate that the integration of both processes has potential advantages mainly regarding power plant flexibility whereas the overall energy penalty is not increased. Thus, the resulting energy consumption per kilogram of CO2 avoided is kept smaller than 4 MI/kg CO2, which remains below the typical values reported for total oxy-combustion and amine based CO2 capture systems whereas CO2 capture efficiency is enhanced in comparison with the Calcium -Looping process.
Applied Energy, 196 (2017) 1-17 | DOI: 5,746

Design and Realization of a Novel Optically Disordered Material: A Demonstration of a Mie Glass

Miranda-Munoz, Jose M.; Lozano, Gabriel; Miguez, Hernan
Herein, a diffusive material presenting optical disorder is introduced, which represents an example of a Mie glass. Comprising spherical crystalline TiO2 nanoparticles randomly dispersed in a mesoporous TiO2 matrix, it is proved that the scattering of light in this inhomogeneous solid can be predicted in an unprecedented manner from single-particle considerations employing Mie theory. To that aim, a study of the dependence of the key parameters employed is performed to describe light propagation in random media, i.e., the scattering mean free path and the transport mean free path, as a function of the size and concentration of the spherical inclusions based on a comparison between experimental results and analytical calculations. It is also demonstrated that Mie glasses enable enhanced fluorescence intensity due to a combined absorptance enhancement of the excitation light combined with an improved outcoupling of the emitted light. The method offers the possibility to perform a deterministic design for the realization of a light diffuser with tailor-made scattering properties.
Advanced Optical Materials, 5 (2017) art. 1700025 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201700025

Photonic Tuning of the Emission Color of Nanophosphor Films Processed at High Temperature

Geng, Dongling; Lozano, Gabriel; Calvo, Mauricio E.; Nunez, Nuria O.; Becerro, Ana I.; Ocana, Manuel; Miguez, Hernan
Photonics offers new possibilities to tailor the photoluminescence process in phosphor-converted light emitting diodes. Herein, it is demonstrated that the emission color of thin layers of rare-earth doped nanocrystals can be strongly modulated in tunable spectral ranges using optical resonators specifically designed to this end. GdVO4:Dy3+ nanoparticles of controlled size and shape are synthesized using a solvothermal method with which highly transparent nanophosphor thin films are prepared. This paper designs and fabricates optical multilayers, which are transparent in the UV and resonant at the frequencies where the Dy3+ ions emit, to prove that the color coordinates of this emitter can be tuned from green to blue or yellow with unprecedented precision. Key to the achievement herein reported is the careful analysis of the structural and optical properties of thin nanophosphor layers with the processing temperature in order to achieve efficient photoluminescence while preserving the transparency of the film. The results open a new path for fundamental and applied research in solid-state lighting in which photonic nanostructures allow controlling the emission properties of state-of-the-art materials without altering their structure or chemical composition.
Advanced Optical Materials, 5 (2017) art. 1700099 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201700099

High performance novel gadolinium doped ceria/yttria stabilized zirconia/nickel layered and hybrid thin film anodes for application in solid oxide fuel cells

Garcia-Garcia, FJ; Beltran, AM; Yubero, E; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Lambert, RM
Magnetron sputtering under oblique angle deposition was used to produce Ni-containing ultra thin film anodes comprising alternating layers of,gadolinium doped ceria (GDC) and yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) of either 200 nm or 1000 nm thickness. The evolution of film structure from initial deposition, through calcination and final reduction was examined by XRD, SEM, TEM and TOF-SIMS. After subsequent fuel cell usage, the porous columnar architecture of the two-component layered thin film anodes was maintained and their resistance to delamination from the underlying YSZ electrolyte was superior to that of corresponding single component Ni-YSZ and Ni-GDC thin films. Moreover, the fuel cell performance of the 200 nm layered anodes compared favorably with conventional commercially available thick anodes. The observed dependence of fuel cell performance on individual layer thicknesses prompted study of equivalent but more easily fabricated hybrid anodes consisting of simultaneously deposited Ni-GDC and Ni-YSZ, which procedure resulted in exceptionally intimate mixing and interaction of the components. The hybrids exhibited very unusual and favorable I-V characteristics, along with exceptionally high power densities at high currents. Their discovery is the principal contribution of the present work. 
Journal of Power Sources, 363 (2017) 251-259 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2017.07.085

Improving the pollutant removal efficiency of packed-bed plasma reactors incorporating ferroelectric components

Gomez-Ramirez, Ana; Montoro-Damas, Antonio M.; Rodriguez, Miguel A.; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Cotrino, Jose
In this work we have studied the plasma removal of air contaminants such as methane, chloroform, toluene and acetone in two parallel plate packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactors of different sizes. Removal and energy efficiencies have been determined as a function of the residence time of the contaminated air within the reactor, the kind of packed-bed material (ferroelectrics or classical dielectric materials), the frequency and the incorporation of a ferroelectric plate onto the active electrode together with the inter-electrode ferroelectric pellets filling the gap. Results at low frequency with the small reactor and the ferroelectric plate showed an enhancement in energy efficiency (e.g., it was multiplied by a factor of six and three for toluene and chloroform, respectively) and in removal yield (e.g., it increased from 22% to 52% for chloroform and from 15% to 21% for methane). Such enhancements have been attributed to the higher energy of plasma electrons and a lower reactor capacitance found for this plate-modified configuration. A careful analysis of reaction efficiencies and electron energy distributions for the different investigated conditions and the simulation of the electric field at the necks between ferroelectric/dielectric pellets complete the present study. Overall, the obtained results prove the critical role of the barrier architecture and operating conditions for an enhanced performance of pollution removal processes using DBD systems.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 314 (2017) 311-319 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.11.065

Large-Scale Storage of Concentrated Solar Power from Industrial Waste

Perejon, Antonio; Valverde, Jose Manuel; Miranda-Pizarro, Juan; Sanchez-Jimenez, Pedro E.; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A.
Deep penetration of renewable energies into the grid relies on the development of large-scale energy storage technologies using cheap, abundant, and nontoxic materials. Concentrated solar power (CSP) is particularly suitable to massively store thermal energy for dispatchable electricity generation. This is currently accomplished in a few demonstration plants by using molten salts albeit in a not competitive way yet. Process simulation studies indicate that thermochemical energy storage of CSP by means of the calcium looping (CaL) technology would reduce the cost of storage and increase the flexibility of energy supply provided that widely available and cheap CaO precursors with high and stable multicycle activity are used. In this work, we investigate the behavior of calcium rich steel slag at CaL conditions that would expectedly maximize the efficiency of CSP energy storage and power production. When treated with acetic acid, this nontoxic widely abundant waste yields a CaO rich solid with stable conversion near 0.8 over successive carbonation/calcination cycles at these CaL conditions
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, 5 (2017) 2265-2272 | DOI: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.6b02576

Cutin from agro-waste as a raw material for the production of bioplastics

Heredia-Guerrero, JA; Heredia, A; Dominguez, E; Cingolani, R; Bayer, IS; Athanassiou, A; Benitez, JJ
Cutin is the main component of plant cuticles constituting the framework that supports the rest of the cuticle components. This biopolymer is composed of esterified bi- and trifunctional fatty acids. Despite its ubiquity in terrestrial plants, it has been underutilized as raw material due to its insolubility and lack of melting point. However, in recent years, a few technologies have been developed to obtain cutin monomers from several agro-wastes at an industrial scale. This review is focused on the description of cutin properties, biodegradability, chemical composition, processability, abundance, and the state of art of the fabrication of cutin-based materials in order to evaluate whether this biopolymer can be considered a source for the production of renewable materials.
Journal of Experimental Botany, 68 (2017) 5401-5410 | DOI: 10.1093/jxb/erx272

Deep insight into Zr/Fe combination for successful Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 WGS catalyst doping

Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Ioannides, T; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Efficient promotion of the Pt/CeO2/Al2O3 catalytic system was achieved by the addition of two different ceria promoters, Zr and Fe. From the exhaustive data analysis, the key features for enhanced catalytic performance and the roles of each doping metal are established. The combination of both doping agents manifests a synergistic effect reflected in noteworthy improvements in H2 reducibility. In addition, the catalyst's doping influences its chemisorptive properties, which is reflected in an increase of the easiness of carbonaceous species desorption, thus leading to superior catalyst resistance toward deactivation.
Catalysis Science & Technology, 7 (2017) 1556-1564 | DOI: 10.1039/c6cy02551j

Cholesterol biosensing with a polydopamine-modified nanostructured platinum electrode prepared by oblique angle physical vacuum deposition

Martin, M; Salazar, P; Alvarez, R; Palmero, A; Lopez-Santos, C; Gonzalez-Mora, JL; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
This paper reports a novel cholesterol biosensor based on nanostructured platinum (Pt) thin films prepared by Magnetron Sputtering (MS) in an oblique angle (OAD) configuration. Pt thin films were deposited onto a gold screen-printed electrode and characterized using Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy (XPS), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and wetting analysis. Our results confirmed that the film is highly porous and formed by tilted nanocolumns, with an inclination of around 40 degrees and a total thickness of 280 nm. XRD and CV analysis confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the Pt thin film. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was covalently immobilized using a bioinspired polymer, polydopamine (PDA), via Schiff base formation and Michael-type addition. After being immobilized, ChOx displayed apparent activation energy of 34.09 kJ mol(-1) and Michaelis constant (K-M) values of 34.09 kJ mol(-1) and 3.65 mM, respectively, confirming the high affinity between ChOx and cholesterol and the excellent ability of the PDA film for immobilizing biological material without degradation. Under optimized working conditions the developed biosensor presented a sensitivity of 14.3 mA M(-1)cm(-2) (R-2:0.999) with a linear range up to 0.5 mM and a limit of detection of 10.5 mu M (S/N= 3). Furthermore, the biosensor exhibited a fast response (<8 s), good anti-interference properties and high stability after relatively long-term storage (2 months). 
Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 240 (2017) 37-45 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.08.092

Strong Quantum Confinement and Fast Photoemission Activation in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Nanocrystals Grown within Periodically Mesostructured Films

Miguel Anaya; Andrea Rubino; Teresa Cristina Rojas; Juan Francisco Galisteo-López; Mauricio Ernesto Calvo; Hernán Míguez
In this Communication, a synthetic route is demonstrated to obtain stabilized MAPbI3 nanocrystals embedded in thin metal oxide films that display well-defined and adjustable quantum confinement effects over a wide range of 0.34 eV. Mesostructured TiO2 and SiO2 films displaying an ordered 3D pore network are prepared by evaporation-induced self-assembly of a series of organic supramolecular templates in the presence of metal oxide precursors. The pores in the inorganic films obtained after thermal annealing are then used as nanoreactors to synthesize MAPbI3crystallites with narrow size distribution and average radius comprised between 1 and 4 nm, depending on the template of choice. Both the static and dynamic photoemission properties of the ensemble display features distinctive of the regime of strong quantum confinement. Photoemission maps demonstrate that the spectral and intensity properties of the luminescence extracted from the perovskite quantum dot loaded films are homogeneous over squared centimeters areas. At variance with their bulk counterparts, constant emission intensity is reached in time scales at least four orders of magnitude shorter.
Advanced Optical Materials | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201601087

Aperiodic Metal-Dielectric Multilayers as Highly Efficient Sunlight Reflectors

Alberto Jiménez-Solano; Miguel Anaya; Mauricio E. Calvo; Mercedes Alcon-Camas; Carlos Alcañiz; Elena Guillén; Noelia Martínez; Manuel Gallas; Thomas Preussner; Ramón Escobar-Galindo; Hernán Míguez
The optimum reflection of the solar spectrum at well-defined incident directions as well as its durability in time are, both, fundamental requirements of the optics of thermosolar and photovoltaic energy conversion systems. The stringent high performance needed for these applications implies that, almost exclusively, second face mirrors based on silver are employed for this purpose. Herein, the possibility to develop solar mirrors using other metals, such as copper and aluminum, is theoretically and experimentally analyzed. It is found that reflectors based on these inexpensive metals are capable of reflecting the full solar spectrum with efficiencies comparable to that of silver-based reflectors. The designs herein proposed are based on aperiodic metal-dielectric multilayers whose optimized configuration is chosen employing a code based on a genetic algorithm that allows selecting the best one among 108 tested reflectors. The use of metals with wider spectral absorption bands is compensated by the use of multilayered designs in which metal absorption is almost suppressed, as the analysis of the electric field intensity distribution demonstrates. The feasibility of the proposed mirrors is demonstrated by their actual fabrication by large area deposition techniques amenable for mass production.
Advanced Optical Materials, 5 (2017) 1600833 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201600833

Electron injection and scaffold effects in perovskite solar cells

M. Anaya, W. Zhang, B. Clasen Hames, Y. Li, F. Fabregat-Santiago, M.E. Calvo, H.J. Snaith, H. Míguez, I. Mora-Seró
In spite of the impressive efficiencies reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs), key aspects of their working principles, such as electron injection at the contacts or the suitability of the utilization of a specific scaffold layer, are not yet fully understood. Increasingly complex scaffolds attained by the sequential deposition of TiO2 and SiO2 mesoporous layers onto transparent conducting substrates are used to perform a systematic characterization of both the injection process at the electron selective contact and the scaffold effect in PSCs. By forcing multiple electron injection processes at a controlled sequence of perovskite–TiO2 interfaces before extraction, interfacial injection effects are magnified and hence characterized in detail. An anomalous injection behavior is observed, the fingerprint of which is the presence of significant inductive loops in the impedance spectra with a magnitude that correlates with the number of interfaces in the scaffold. Analysis of the resistive and capacitive behavior of the impedance spectra indicates that the scaffolds could hinder ion migration, with positive consequences such as lowering the recombination rate and implications for the current–potential curve hysteresis. Our results suggest that an appropriate balance between these advantageous effects and the unavoidable charge transport resistive losses introduced by the scaffolds will help in the optimization of PSC performance.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 5 (2017) 634-644 | DOI: 10.1039/C6TC04639H

Defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3

Schrade, M; Maso, N; Perejon, A; Perez-Maqueda, LA; West, AR
BiFeO3 attracts considerable attention for its rich functional properties, including room temperature coexistence of magnetic order and ferroelectricity and more recently, the discovery of conduction pathways along ferroelectric domain walls. Here, insights into the defect chemistry and electrical properties of BiFeO3 are obtained by in situ measurements of electrical conductivity, sigma, and Seebeck coefficient, a, of undoped, cation-stoichiometric BiFeO3 and acceptor-doped Bi1-xCaxFeO3-delta ceramics as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure pO(2). Bi1-xCaxFeO3-delta exhibits p-type conduction; the dependencies of s and a on pO(2) show that Ca dopants are compensated mainly by oxygen vacancies. By contrast, undoped BiFeO3 shows a simultaneous increase of s and a with increasing pO(2), indicating intrinsic behavior with electrons and holes as the main defect species in almost equal concentrations. The pO(2)-dependency of s and a cannot be described by a single point defect model but instead, is quantitatively described by a combination of intrinsic and acceptor-doped characteristics attributable to parallel conduction pathways through undoped grains and defect-containing domain walls; both contribute to the total charge transport in BiFeO3. Based on this model, we discuss the charge transport mechanism and carrier mobilities of BiFeO3 and show that several previous experimental findings can readily be explained within the proposed model.
Journal of Matrials Chemistry C, 5 (2017) 10077-10086 | DOI: 10.1039/c7tc03345a

Perspectives on oblique angle deposition of thin films: From fundamentals to devices

Barranco, A; Borras, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Palmero, A
The oblique angle configuration has emerged as an invaluable tool for the deposition of nanostructured thin films. This review develops an up to date description of its principles, including the atomistic mechanisms governing film growth and nanostructuration possibilities, as well as a comprehensive description of the applications benefiting from its incorporation in actual devices. In contrast with other reviews on the subject, the electron beam assisted evaporation technique is analyzed along with other methods operating at oblique angles, including, among others, magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser or ion beam-assisted deposition techniques. To account for the existing differences between deposition in vacuum or in the presence of a plasma, mechanistic simulations are critically revised, discussing well-established paradigms such as the tangent or cosine rules, and proposing new models that explain the growth of tilted porous nanostructures. In the second part, we present an extensive description of applications wherein oblique-angle-deposited thin films are of relevance. From there, we proceed by considering the requirements of a large number of functional devices in which these films are currently being utilized (e.g., solar cells, Li batteries, electrochromic glasses, biomaterials, sensors, etc.), and subsequently describe how and why these nanostructured materials meet with these needs. 
Progress in Materials Science, 78 (2016) 59-153 | DOI: 10.1016/j.pmatsci.2015.06.003

Maximized performance of dye solar cells on plastic: a combined theoretical and experimental optimization approach

Li, Yuelong; Carretero-Palacios, Sol; Yoo, Kicheon; Kim, Jong Hak; Jimenez-Solano, Alberto; Lee, Chul-Ho; Miguez, Hernan; Ko, Min Jae
We demonstrate that a combined optimization approach based on the sequential alternation of theoretical analysis and experimental realization gives rise to plastic supported dye solar cells for which both light harvesting efficiency and electron collection are maximized. Rationalized configurations with optimized light trapping and charge extraction are realized to achieve photoanodes on plastic prepared at low temperature, showing a power conversion efficiency of 8.55% and a short circuit photocurrent of 16.11 mA cm−2, unprecedented for plastic based dye solar cell devices. Furthermore, the corresponding fully flexible designs present stable mechanical properties after several bending cycles, displaying 7.79% power conversion efficiency, an average broadband internal quantum efficiency above 90%, and a short circuit photocurrent of 15.94 mA cm−2, which is the largest reported value for bendable cells of this sort to date.
Energy & Environmental Science, 9 (2016) 2061-2071 | DOI: 10.1039/C6EE00424E

Unbroken Perovskite: Interplay of Morphology, Electro-optical Properties, and Ionic Movement

Correa-Baena, JP; Anaya, M; Lozano, G; Tress, W; Domanski, K; Saliba, M; Matsui, T; Jacobsson, TJ; Calvo, ME; Abate, A; Gratzel, M; Miguez, H; Hagfeldt, A
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite materials have risen up as leading components for light-harvesting applications. However, to date many questions are still open concerning the operation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs). A systematic analysis of the interplay among structural features, optoelectronic performance, and ionic movement behavior for FA(0.83)MA(0.17)Pb(I0.83Br0.17)(3) PSCs is presented, which yield high power conversion efficiencies up to 20.8%.
Advanced Materials, 28 (2016) 5031-5037 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201600624

Metallic nanostructures for efficient LED lighting

Lozano, G; Rodriguez, SRK; Verschuuren, MA; Rivas, JG
Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are driving a shift toward energy-efficient illumination. Nonetheless, modifying the emission intensities, colors and directionalities of LEDs in specific ways remains a challenge often tackled by incorporating secondary optical components. Metallic nanostructures supporting plasmonic resonances are an interesting alternative to this approach due to their strong light-matter interaction, which facilitates control over light emission without requiring external secondary optical components. This review discusses new methods that enhance the efficiencies of LEDs using nanostructured metals. This is an emerging field that incorporates physics, materials science, device technology and industry. First, we provide a general overview of state-of-the-art LED lighting, discussing the main characteristics required of both quantum wells and color converters to efficiently generate white light. Then, we discuss the main challenges in this field as well as the potential of metallic nanostructures to circumvent them. We review several of the most relevant demonstrations of LEDs in combination with metallic nanostructures, which have resulted in light-emitting devices with improved performance. We also highlight a few recent studies in applied plasmonics that, although exploratory and eminently fundamental, may lead to new solutions in illumination.
Light: Science and Applications, 5 (2016) e16080 | DOI: 10.1038/lsa.2016.80

Optofluidic Modulation of Self-Associated Nanostructural Units Forming Planar Bragg Microcavities

Oliva-Ramirez, M; Barranco, A; Loffler, M; Yubero, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Bragg microcavities (BMs) formed by the successive stacking of nanocolumnar porous SiO2 and TiO2 layers with slanted, zigzag, chiral, and vertical configurations are prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles while azimuthally varying the substrate orientation during the multilayer growth. The slanted and zigzag BMs act as wavelength-selective optical retarders when they are illuminated with linearly polarized light, while no polarization dependence is observed for the chiral and vertical cavities. This distinct optical behavior is attributed to a self-nanostructuration mechanism involving a fence-bundling association of nanocolumns as observed by focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy in the slanted and zigzag microcavities. The outstanding retarder response of the optically active BMs can be effectively modulated by dynamic infiltration of nano- and mesopores with liquids of different refraction indices acting as a switch of the polarization behavior. The unprecedented polarization and tunable optofluidic properties of these nanostructured photonic systems have been successfully simulated with a simple model that assumes a certain birefringence for the individual stacked layers and accounts for the light interference phenomena developed in the BMs. The possibilities of this type of self-arranged nanostructured and optically active BMs for liquid sensing and monitoring applications are discussed.
ACS Nano, 10 (2016) 1256-1264 | DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.5b06625

High-Throughput Fabrication of Resonant Metamaterials with Ultrasmall Coaxial Apertures via Atomic Layer Lithography

Yoo, D; Nguyen, NC; Martin-Moreno, L; Mohr, DA; Carretero-Palacios, S; Shaver, J; Peraire, J; Ebbesen, TW; Oh, SH
We combine atomic layer lithography and glancing angle ion polishing to create wafer-scale metamaterials composed of dense arrays of ultrasmall coaxial nanocavities in gold films. This new fabrication scheme makes it possible to shrink the diameter and increase the packing density of 2 nm-gap coaxial resonators, an extreme subwavelength structure first manufactured via atomic layer lithography, both by a factor of 100 with respect to previous studies. We demonstrate that the nonpropagating zeroth-order Fabry-Perot mode, which possesses slow light-like properties at the cutoff resonance, traps infrared light inside 2 nm gaps (gap volume similar to lambda(3)/10(6)). Notably, the annular gaps cover only 3% or less of the metal surface, while open-area normalized transmission is as high as 1700% at the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) condition. The resulting energy accumulation alongside extraordinary optical transmission can benefit applications in nonlinear optics, optical trapping, and surface-enhanced spectroscopies. Furthermore, because the resonance wavelength is independent of the cavity length and dramatically red shifts as the gap size is reduced, large-area arrays can be constructed with lambda(resonance) >> period, making this fabrication method ideal for manufacturing resonant metamaterials.
Nano Letters, 16 (2016) 2040-2046 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b00024

Electrocatalytic System for the Simultaneous Hydrogen Production and Storage from Methanol

Gonzalez-Cobos, J; Rico, VJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Valverde, JL; de Lucas-Consuegra, A
This paper reports a groundbreaking approach for simultaneous hydrogen production and storage that entails catalysis, electrochemistry, surface science, and materials synthesis. A novel electrocatalytic system is developed based on nickel nanocolumnar films of controlled microstructure prepared on K-βAl2O3 solid electrolyte supports by oblique angle physical vapor deposition. The outstanding characteristics of this system are a hydrogen storage capacity of up to 19 g of H2 (100 g of Ni)−1, which is unparalleled in the literature and the possibility of controlling its release electrochemically, under fixed mild conditions (280 °C and normal pressure). H2 is produced in situ by methanol steam re-forming on the Ni catalyst, and it spills over onto graphene oxide aggregates formed during the catalytic process, as confirmed by SEM, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The proposed storage mechanism considers a synergetic contribution of both Ni and graphene oxide, promoted by K+ ions, in enhancing the hydrogen storage capacity of the system.
ACS Catalysis, 6 (2016) 1942-1951 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.5b02844

Stabilization of catalyst particles against sintering on oxide supports with high oxygen ion lability exemplified by Ir-catalyzed decomposition of N2O

Yentekakis, IV; Goula, G; Panagiotopoulou, P; Kampouri, S; Taylor, MJ; Kyriakou, G; Lambert, RM
Iridium nanoparticles deposited on a variety of surfaces exhibited thermal sintering characteristics that were very strongly correlated with the lability of lattice oxygen in the supporting oxide materials. Specifically, the higher the lability of oxygen ions in the support, the greater the resistance of the nanoparticles to sintering in an oxidative environment. Thus with gamma-Al2O3 as the support, rapid and extensive sintering occurred. In striking contrast, when supported on gadolinia-ceria and alumina-ceria-zirconia composite, the Ir nanoparticles underwent negligible sintering. In keeping with this trend, the behavior found with yttria-stabilized zirconia was an intermediate between the two extremes. This resistance, or lack of resistance, to sintering is considered in terms of oxygen spillover from support to nanoparticles and discussed with respect to the alternative mechanisms of Ostwald ripening versus nanoparticle diffusion. Activity towards the decomposition of N2O, a reaction that displays pronounced sensitivity to catalyst particle size (large particles more active than small particles), was used to confirm that catalytic behavior was consistent with the independently measured sintering characteristics. It was found that the nanoparticle active phase was Ir oxide, which is metallic, possibly present as a capping layer. Moreover, observed turnover frequencies indicated that catalyst-support interactions were important in the cases of the sinter-resistant systems, an effect that may itself be linked to the phenomena that gave rise to materials with a strong resistance to nanoparticle sintering. 
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 192 (2016) 357-364 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.04.011

Cascade charge separation mechanism by ternary heterostructured BiPO4/TiO2/g-C3N4 photocatalyst

Obregon, S; Zhang, YF; Colon, G
A complex ternary BiPO4/TiO2/gC(3)N(4) heterostructure has been obtained from a simple impregnation method having good photoactivities for the degradation of phenol under solar-like irradiation. From the wide structural, surface and electronic characterization, we have stated that the formation of the ternary heterojunction notably affect photoactivity of pristine TiO2. Thus, the best result for the binary system was obtained for 70 wt%TiO2-30 wt% BiPO4 system. The incorporation of gC(3)N(4) leads to a further improvement on the photocatalytic activity when it is specifically done over TiO2. By means of photoluminescence spectroscopy and reactive oxygen species formation test, we propose that the effective charge carrier separation is taking place through a cascade-driven electronic mechanism. Therefore, by choosing the adequate band-engineering tailoring an important improved photoactivity can be achieved. 
Applied Catalysis B: Enviromental, 184 (2016) 96-103 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.11.027

O-2-assisted Water Gas Shift reaction over structured Au and Pt catalysts

Gonzalez-Castano, M; Reina, TR; Ivanova, S; Tejada, LMM; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Platinum and gold structured catalysts were compared as active phases in classical and O2-assisted Water Gas Shift (WGS) reaction. Both metals were supported on iron-doped ceria mixed oxide and then, structured on metallic micromonolithic devices. As expected the WGS activity of both micromonoliths is conditioned by the nature of the noble metals being Pt the most active metal in traditional conditions. However, the addition of oxygen to the classical water gas feed turns the balance in favor of the gold based catalysts, being the presence of gold responsible for an excessive improvement of the catalytic activity.
Applied Catalysis B: Enviromental, 185 (2016) 337-343 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.12.032

Investigation of a Pt containing washcoat on SiC foam for hydrogen combustion applications

Fernandez, A; Arzac, GM; Vogt, UF; Hosoglu, F; Borgschulte, A; de Haro, MCJ; Montes, O; Zuttel, A
A commercial Pt based washcoat, used for catalytic methane combustion, was studied supported on a commercial SiC foam as catalytic material (Pt/SiC) for catalytic hydrogen combustion (CHC). Structural and chemical characterization was performed using Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The reaction was monitored following water concentration by Fourier Transform Infrared spectra (FTIR). The FTIR method was compared with H2 detection by Gas Cromatography (GC) and has shown to be adequate to study the kinetics of the CHC reaction in steady state under our experimental conditions (very lean 1% (v/v) H2/air mixtures). The catalyst is composed of 5–20 nm disperse Pt nanoparticles decorating a mixture of high surface area Al2O3 and small amounts of ceria supported on the SiC foam which also contains alumina as binder. The Pt/SiC catalytic material has demonstrated to be active enough to start up the reaction in a few seconds at room temperature. The material has been able to convert at least 18.5 Lhydrogen min−1 gPt−1 at room temperature in conditions of excess of catalyst. The Pt/SiC material was studied after use using XPS and no significant changes on Pt oxidation states were found. The material was characterized from a kinetic point of view. From the conversion-temperature plot a T50(temperature for 50% conversion) of 34 °C was obtained. Activation energy measured in our conditions was 35 ± 1 kJ mol−1.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 180 (2016) 336-343 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.06.040

WGS and CO-PrOx reactions using gold promoted copper-ceria catalysts: "Bulk CuO-CeO2 vs. CuO-CeO2/Al2O3 with low mixed oxide content"

Reina, TR; Ivanova, S; Laguna, OH; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
A copper-ceria bulk catalyst has been compared to a series of catalysts designed according to the as called "supported approach", corresponding to the dispersion of low content mixed copper-ceria oxide on alumina matrix. The principal characteristics of both types of catalysts are contemplated and the differences in their electronic and redox properties discussed in details. As a plus, the gold metal promotion of the catalysts is also envisaged. The advantages of the systems in the CO clean up reactions, WGS and CO-PrOx are commented. While the WGS activity appears to be ruled especially by the Cu/Ce surface to volume ratio, the CO-PrOx reaction is governed by the CuO loading. Gold addition provides benefits only at the low temperature WGS regime. Very importantly, the supported systems are always superior to the bulk configuration in terms of specific activity, a key factor from the catalyst's design perspective. 
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 197 (2016) 62-72 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.03.022

The role of Au, Cu & CeO2 and their interactions for an enhanced WGS performance

Reina, TR; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
The WGS reaction over multicomponent Au/Ce1-xCuxO2/Al2O3 catalysts is studied in this work. The systems are carefully designed aiming to take advantage of every active phase included in the formulation: gold, ceria and copper. Special emphasis is given to the CeO2-CuO synergy and its influence on the displayed catalytic performance with and without gold. To this aim a meaningful correlation between the physicochemical properties of the mixed materials and their activity/stability is proposed. In general terms the developed catalysts present high activity under realistic WGS reaction conditions, with fairly good long term stability. In addition, the systems successfully withstand start-up/shut-downs situations, indispensable requisite for real applications in the field of pure hydrogen production for fuel cell goals. 
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 187 (2016) 98-107 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.01.031

Photocatalytic removal of patent blue V dye on Au-TiO2 and Pt-TiO2 catalysts

Vaiano, V; Iervolino, G; Sannino, D; Murcia, JJ; Hidalgo, MC; Ciambelli, P; Navio, JA
In this work it was studied the efficiency of a photocatalytic process for the removal of patent blue V. This dye is very difficult to remove by conventional treatments such as adsorption or coagulation therefore the photocatalytic process is a very interesting alternative for the removal this dye mainly because it does not require expensive oxidants and it can be carried out at mild temperatures and pressures. In this work it was tested the efficiency of Au-TiO2 and Pt-TiO2 photocatalysts in the Patent blue V removal. The Au-TiO2 catalysts were prepared by two different methods: chemical reduction and photochemical deposition; Pt-TiO2 catalysts were obtained only by photochemical deposition. In the synthesis of the catalysts prepared by photochemical deposition, it was evaluated the influence of some parameters, such as deposition time and the intensity of the light source over the physicochemical properties and photocatalytic activity of the materials obtained. An analysis of the effect of the catalyst dosage and initial patent blue V concentration over the dye degradation efficiency was also attempted.  In general, it was observed that the presence of Au or Pt on TiO2 enhances the patent blue V photodegradation; it was found that noble metal particle size and distribution on TiO2 surface are important factors influencing the dye removal. The highest dye degradation was obtained over the Au-TiO2 catalyst prepared by photochemical deposition, using high light intensity and 15 min of deposition time during the synthesis. A discoloration and a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of 93 and 67% respectively, were obtained over this material after 180 min of UV irradiation. These values are higher than that the obtained on S-TiO2 (discoloration and TOC removal of about 25% and 3%, respectively).
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 188 (2016) 134-146 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.02.001

Three-Dimensional Optical Tomography and Correlated Elemental Analysis of Hybrid Perovskite Microstructures: An Insight into Defect-Related Lattice Distortion and Photoinduced Ion Migration

Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Li, YL; Miguez, H
Organic lead halide perovskites have recently been proposed for applications in light-emitting devices of different sorts. More specifically, regular crystalline microstructures constitute an efficient light source and fulfill the geometrical requirements to act as resonators, giving rise to waveguiding and optical amplification. Herein we show three-dimensional laser scanning confocal tomography studies of different types of methylammonium lead bromide microstructures which have allowed us to dissect their photoemission properties with a precision of 0.036 mu m(3). This analysis shows that their spectral emission presents strong spatial variations which can be attributed to defect-related lattice distortions. It is also largely enhanced under light exposure, which triggers the migration of halide ions away from illuminated regions, eventually leading to a strongly anisotropic degradation. Our work points to the need for performing an optical quality test of individual crystallites prior to their use in optoelectronics devices and provides a means to do so.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 7 (2016) 5227-5234 | DOI: 10.1021/acsjpclett.6b02456

Optical analysis of CH3NH3SnxPb1−xI3 absorbers: a roadmap for perovskite-on-perovskite tandem solar cells

Anaya, M.; Correa-Baena, J.P.; Lozano, G.; Saliba, M.; Anguita, P.; Roose, B.; Abate, A.; Steiner, U.; Gratzel, M.; Calvo, M.E.; Hagfeldt, A.; Míguez, H.
Organic–inorganic perovskite structures in which lead is substituted by tin are exceptional candidates for broadband light absorption. Herein we present a thorough analysis of the optical properties of CH3NH3SnxPb1−xI3 films, providing the field with definitive insights about the possibilities of these materials for perovskite solar cells of superior efficiency. We report a user's guide based on the first set of optical constants obtained for a series of tin/lead perovskite films, which was only possible to measure due to the preparation of optical quality thin layers. According to the Shockley–Queisser theory, CH3NH3SnxPb1−xI3 compounds promise a substantial enhancement of both short circuit photocurrent and power conversion efficiency in single junction solar cells. Moreover, we propose a novel tandem architecture design in which both top and bottom cells are made of perovskite absorbers. Our calculations indicate that such perovskite-on-perovskite tandem devices could reach efficiencies over 35%. Our analysis serves to establish the first roadmap for this type of cells based on actual optical characterization data. We foresee that this study will encourage the research on novel near-infrared perovskite materials for photovoltaic applications, which may have implications in the rapidly emerging field of tandem devices.
Journal lf Materials Chemistry A, 4 (2016) 11214-11221 | DOI: 10.1039/C6TA04840D

Efficient bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells through disorder by design

Miranda-Munoz, JM; Carretero-Palacios, S; Jimenez-Solano, A; Li, YL; Lozano, G; Miguez, H
Herein we realize an optical design that optimizes the performance of bifacial solar cells without modifying any of the usually employed components. In order to do so, dielectric scatterers of controlled size and shape have been successfully integrated in the working electrodes of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), resulting in bifacial devices of outstanding performance. Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) as high as 6.7% and 5.4% have been attained under front and rear illumination, respectively, which represent a 25% and a 33% PCE enhancement with respect to an 8 μm-thick standard solar cell electrode using platinum as the catalytic material. The remarkable bifacial character of our approach is demonstrated by the high rear/front efficiency ratio attained, around 80%, which is among the largest reported for this sort of device. The proposed optimized design is based on a Monte Carlo approach in which the multiple scattering of light within the cell is fully accounted for. We identified that the spherical shape of the scatterers is the key parameter controlling the angular distribution of the scattering, the most efficient devices being those in which the inclusions provide a narrow forward-oriented angular distribution of the scattered light.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 4 (2016) 1953-1961 | DOI: 10.1039/C5TA10091G

Optical sensing by integration of analyte-sensitive fluorophore to particles

Carrillo-Carrion, C; Escudero, A; Parak, WJ
Analyte-sensitive fluorophores are a common tool in analytical chemistry. In case they are conjugated to the surface of colloidal nanoparticles new or improved applications are possible. An overview of the potential of such fluorophore-particle conjugates is given by means of several examples. First, using pH-sensitive fluorophores attached to particles are a helpful tool for investigating particle uptake by cells, as they can indicate whether particles are in the neutral slightly alkaline extracellular medium, or in acidic intracellular vesicles after endocytosis. Second, relating to lifetime-based methodologies, the fluorescence resonance energy transfer between fluorophores attached to quantum dots leads to longer lifetimes, improving their performance and expanding the possibilities of methods, such as lifetime imaging for in vivo applications. It also can be exploited for multiplexing approaches, in which the effective lifetime of the fluorophores can be tuned, allowing thus for the detection of several analytes based on temporal discrimination. Attention is focused to these three areas of application, because they are among the most reported in recent literature, and therefore of particular interest.
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 84 (2016) 84-85 | DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2016.05.001

Template-Assisted Hydrothermal Growth of Aligned Zinc Oxide Nanowires for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Applications

Ou, C; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Datta, A; Boughey, FL; Whiter, RA; Sahonta, SL; Kar-Narayan, S
A flexible and robust piezoelectric nanogenerator (NG) based on a polymer-ceramic nanocomposite structure has been successfully fabricated via a cost-effective and scalable template assisted hydrothermal synthesis method. Vertically aligned arrays of dense and uniform zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires (NWs) with high aspect ratio (diameter similar to 250 nm, length similar to 12 mu m) were grown within nanoporous polycarbonate (PC) templates. The energy conversion efficiency was found to be similar to 4.2%, which is comparable to previously reported values for ZnO NWs. The resulting NG is found to have excellent fatigue performance, being relatively immune to detrimental environmental factors and mechanical failure, as the constituent ZnO NWs remain embedded and protected inside the polymer matrix.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (2016) 13678-13683 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b04041

Growth Assisted by Glancing Angle Deposition: A New Technique to Fabricate Highly Porous Anisotropic Thin Films

Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Longtin, R; Rossell, MD; Groning, P
We report a new methodology based on glancing angle deposition (GLAD) of an organic molecule in combination with perpendicular growth of a second inorganic material. The resulting thin films retain a very well-defined tilted columnar microstructure characteristic of GLAD with the inorganic material embedded inside the columns. We refer to this new methodology as growth assisted by glancing angle deposition or GAGLAD, since the material of interest (here, the inorganic) grows in the form of tilted columns, though it is deposited under a nonglancing configuration. As a “proof of concept”, we have used silver and zinc oxide as the perpendicularly deposited material since they usually form ill-defined columnar microstructures at room temperature by GLAD. By means of our GAGLAD methodology, the typical tilted columnar microstructure can be developed for materials that otherwise do not form ordered structures under conventional GLAD. This simple methodology broadens significantly the range of materials where control of the microstructure can be achieved by tuning the geometrical deposition parameters. The two examples presented here, Ag/Alq3 and ZnO/Alq3, have been deposited by physical vapor deposition (PVD) and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), respectively: two different vacuum techniques that illustrate the generality of the proposed technique. The two type of hybrid samples present very interesting properties that demonstrate the potentiality of GAGLAD. On one hand, the Ag/Alq3 samples present highly optical anisotropic properties when they are analyzed with linearly polarized light. To our knowledge, these Ag/Alq3 samples present the highest angular selectivity reported in the visible range. On the other hand, ZnO/Alq3 samples are used to develop highly porous ZnO thin films by using Alq3 as sacrificial material. In this way, antireflective ZnO samples with very low refractive index and extinction coefficient have been obtained.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (2016) 8686-8693 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b00232

Electrochemical Energy Storage Applications of CVD Grown Niobium Oxide Thin Films

Fiz, Raquel; Appel, Linus; Gutierrez-Pardo, Antonio; Ramirez-Rico, Joaquin; Mathur, Sanjay
We report here on the controlled synthesis, characterization, and electrochemical properties of different polymorphs of niobium pentoxide grown by CVD of new single-source precursors. Nb2O5 films deposited at different temperatures showed systematic phase evolution from low-temperature tetragonal (TT-Nb2O5, T-Nb2O5) to high temperature monoclinic modifications (H–Nb2O5). Optimization of the precursor flux and substrate temperature enabled phase-selective growth of Nb2O5 nanorods and films on conductive mesoporous biomorphic carbon matrices (BioC). Nb2O5 thin films deposited on monolithic BioC scaffolds produced composite materials integrating the high surface area and conductivity of the carbonaceous matrix with the intrinsically high capacitance of nanostructured niobium oxide. Heterojunctions in Nb2O5/BioC composites were found to be beneficial in electrochemical capacitance. Electrochemical characterization of Nb2O5/BioC composites showed that small amounts of Nb2O5 (as low as 5%) in conjunction with BioCarbon resulted in a 7-fold increase in the electrode capacitance, from 15 to 104 F g–1, while imparting good cycling stability, making these materials ideally suited for electrochemical energy storage applications.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (2016) 21423–21430 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b03945

Laser Treatment of Nanoparticulated Metal Thin Films for Ceramic Tile Decoration

Rico, VJ; Lahoz, R; Rey-Garcia, F; Yubero, F; Espinos, JP; de la Fuente, GF; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
This paper presents a new method for the fabrication of metal-like decorative layers on glazed ceramic tiles. It consists of the laser treatment of Cu thin films prepared by electron-beam evaporation at glancing angles. A thin film of discontinuous Cu nanoparticles was electron-beam-evaporated in an oblique angle configuration onto ceramic tiles and an ample palette of colors obtained by laser treatment both in air and in vacuum. Scanning electron microscopy along with UV–vis–near-IR spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis were used to characterize the differently colored layers. On the basis of these analyses, color development has been accounted for by a simple model considering surface melting phenomena and different microstructural and chemical transformations of the outmost surface layers of the samples.
Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (2016) 24880-24886 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b07469

Manganese Dioxide Supported on Porous Biomorphic Carbons as Hybrid Materials for Energy Storage Devices

Gutierrez-Pardo, A; Lacroix, B; Martinez-Fernandez, J; Ramirez-Rico, J
A facile and low-cost method has been employed to fabricate MnO2/C hybrid materials for use as binder-free electrodes for supercapacitor applications. Biocarbon monoliths were obtained through pyrolysis of beech wood, replicating the microstructure of the cellulosic precursor, and serve as 3D porous and conductive scaffolds for the direct growth of MnO, nanosheets by a solution method. Evaluation of the experimental results indicates that a homogeneous and uniform composite material made of a carbon matrix exhibiting ordered hierarchical porosity and MnO, nanosheets with a layered nanocrystalline structure is obtained. The tuning of the MnO2 content and crystallite size via the concentration of KMnO4 used as impregnation solution allows to obtain composites that exhibit enhanced electrochemical behavior, achieving a capacitance of 592 F g(-1) in electrodes containing 3 wt % MnO2 with an excellent cyclic stability. The electrode materials were characterized before and after electrochemical testing.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 8 (2016) 30890-30898 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b09361

Synthesis and functionalization of monodisperse near-ultraviolet and visible excitable multifunctional Eu3+, Bi3+:REVO4 nanophosphors for bioimaging and biosensing applications

Escudero, Alberto; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; Zyuzin, Mikhail V.; Ashraf, Sumaira; Hartmann, Raimo; Nunez, Nuria O.; Ocana, Manuel; Parak, Wolfgang J.
Near-ultraviolet and visible excitable Eu- and Bi-doped NPs based on rare earth vanadates (REVO4, RE = Y, Gd) have been synthesized by a facile route from appropriate RE precursors, europium and bismuth nitrate, and sodium orthovanadate, by homogeneous precipitation in an ethylene glycol/water mixture at 120 °C. The NPs can be functionalized either by a one-pot synthesis with polyacrylic acid (PAA) or by a Layer-by-Layer approach with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and PAA. In the first case, the particle size can also be tuned by adjusting the amount of PAA. The Eu- Bi-doped REVO4 based nanophosphors show the typical red luminescence of Eu(III), which can be excited through an energy transfer process from the vanadate anions, resulting in a much higher luminescence intensity in comparison to the direct excitation of the europium cations. The incorporation of Bi into the REVO4 structure shifts the original absorption band of the vanadate anions towards longer wavelengths, giving rise to nanophosphors with an excitation maximum at 342 nm, which can also be excited in the visible range. The suitability of such nanophosphors for bioimaging and biosensing applications, as well as their colloidal stability in different buffer media of biological interest, their cytotoxicity, their degradability at low pH, and their uptake by HeLa cells have been evaluated. Their suitability for bioimaging and biosensing applications is also demonstrated.
Nanoscale, 8 (2016) 12221-12236 | DOI: 10.1039/C6NR03369E

Colloidal crystals and water: Perspectives on liquid-solid nanoscale phenomena in wet particulate media

Gallego-Gomez, F; Morales-Florez, V; Morales, M; Blanco, A; Lopez, C
Solid colloidal ensembles inherently contain water adsorbed from the ambient moisture. This water, confined in the porous network formed by the building submicron spheres, greatly affects the ensemble properties. Inversely, one can benefit from such influence on collective features to explore the water behavior in such nanoconfinements. Recently, novel approaches have been developed to investigate in-depth where and how water is placed in the nanometric pores of self-assembled colloidal crystals. Here, we summarize these advances, along with new ones, that are linked to general interfacial water phenomena like adsorption, capillary forces, and flow. Water-dependent structural properties of the colloidal crystal give clues to the interplay between nanoconfined water and solid fine particles that determines the behavior of ensembles. We elaborate on how the knowledge gained on water in colloidal crystals provides new opportunities for multidisciplinary study of interfacial and nanoconfined liquids and their essential role in the physics of utmost important systems such as particulate media.
Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 234 (2016) 142-160 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cis.2016.05.004

The Calcium-Looping technology for CO2 capture: On the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior

Perejon, A; Romeo, LM; Lara, Y; Lisbona, P; Martinez, A; Valverde, JM
The Calcium Looping (CaL) technology, based on the multicyclic carbonation/calcination of CaO in gas-solid fluidized bed reactors at high temperature, has emerged in the last years as a potentially low cost technology for CO2 capture. In this manuscript a critical review is made on the important roles of energy integration and sorbent behavior in the process efficiency. Firstly, the strategies proposed to reduce the energy demand by internal integration are discussed as well as process modifications aimed at optimizing the overall efficiency by means of external integration. The most important benefit of the high temperature CaL cycles is the possibility of using high temperature streams that could reduce significantly the energy penalty associated to CO2 capture. The application of the CaL technology in precombustion capture systems and energy integration, and the coupling of the CaL technology with other industrial processes are also described. In particular, the CaL technology has a significant potential to be a feasible CO2 capture system for cement plants. A precise knowledge of the multicyclic CO2 capture behavior of the sorbent at the CaL conditions to be expected in practice is of great relevance in order to predict a realistic capture efficiency and energy penalty from process simulations. The second part of this manuscript will be devoted to this issue. Particular emphasis is put on the behavior of natural limestone and dolomite, which would be the only practical choices for the technology to meet its main goal of reducing CO2 capture costs. Under CaL calcination conditions for CO2 capture (necessarily implying high CO2 concentration in the calciner), dolomite seems to be a better alternative to limestone as CaO precursor. The proposed techniques of recarbonation and thermal/mechanical pretreatments to reactivate the sorbent and accelerate calcination will be the final subjects of this review.
Applied Energy, 162 (2016) 787-807 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.10.121

A Full Vacuum Approach for the Fabrication of Hybrid White-Light-Emitting Thin Films and Wide-Range In Situ Tunable Luminescent Microcavities

Y. Oulad-Zian, J.R. Sánchez-Valencia, M. Oliva, J. Parra-Barranco, M. Alcaire, F.J. Aparicio, A. Mora-Boza, J.P. Espinós, F. Yubero, A.R. González-Elipe, A. Barranco, A. Borras
A wide-range in situ tunable 1D Bragg microcavity including a hybrid layer as white light emitter defect is shown by J. R. Sanchez-Valencia, A. Borras, and co-workers on page 1124. White emission is obtained by Förster resonance energy transfer between blue (1,3,5-triphenyl-2-pyrazoline) and orange (rubrene) dyes homogeneously infiltrated within the host nanocolumnar SiO2film, which is formed by glancing angle deposition. Sequential physical vapor deposition at low temperatures provides the organic dyes localization within the porous nanostructure of the defect layer.
Advanced Optical Materials, 4 (2016) 1134 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201670041

Integration of Photonic Crystals into Flexible Dye Solar Cells: A Route toward Bendable and Adaptable Optoelectronic Devices Displaying Structural Color and Enhanced Efficiency

Li, YL; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
Herein is presented what is believed to be the first example of integration of photonic structures in a flexible optoelectronic device. The resulting devices may be designed to display any color in the visible range and, simultaneously, present enhanced power conversion efficiency as a consequence of the increased light harvesting caused by the colored back reflection. The achievement results from the incorporation of nanoparticle-based multilayers with photonic crystal properties that are modified to be compatible with the chemical and physical processing of flexible nanocrystalline titania electrodes of dye solar cells. The photovoltaic performance of these colored flexible cells remains unaltered after one hundred bending cycles, thus showing the high-mechanical stability of the ensemble. These devices reunite most characteristics required for building integration or for the construction of solar window panes, such as light weight, stability upon bending, adaptability, and color. This work may trigger promising applications of these highly adaptable and versatile photonic crystals in other flexible devices.
Advanced Optical Materials, 4 (2016) 464-471 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500547

Photocatalytic hydrogen production from degradation of glucose over fluorinated and platinized TiO2 catalysts

Iervolino, G; Vaiano, V; Murcia, JJ; Rizzo, L; Ventre, G; Pepe, G; Campiglia, P; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA; Sannino, D
The present work reports the renewable hydrogen production by photocatalytic degradation of glucose over commercial and home prepared TiO2 modified by the simultaneous presence of fluorine and Pt (Pt-F-TiO2). The obtained materials were widely characterized by different techniques (XRD, SBF, UV-Vis DRS, XRF, SEM and TEM) and it was found that surface area, anatase/rutile ratio and the distribution and size of the platinum particles are important factors influencing the effectiveness of these materials in the H-2 production. The photocatalytic H-2 production from the glucose solution was 97 mu mol of H-2 after 3 h of irradiation on home prepared TiO2 modified by F and Pt addition, while a lower value corresponding to 31 mu mol of H-2 was obtained on commercial TiO2 modified by F and Pt, after 3 h of irradiation. The hydrogen production rate increased by decreasing the initial pH of solution reaching the highest value of about 590 mu mol h(-1) g(-1) after 3 h of irradiation time at pH = 2. Accordingly, sugar containing wastewaters from food industry has the potential for producing hydrogen by photocatalytic process while removing organics before disposal or reuse. 
Journal of Catalysis, 339 (2016) 47-56 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2016.03.032

Synthesis, characterization and performance of robust poison resistant ultrathin film yttria stabilized zirconia nickel anodes for application in solid electrolyte fuel cells

Garcia-Garcia, FJ; Yubero, F; Espinos, JP; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Lambert, RM
We report on the synthesis of undoped ∼5 μm YSZ-Ni porous thin films prepared by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering at an oblique angle of incidence. Pre-calcination of the amorphous unmodified precursor layers followed by reduction produces a film consisting of uniformly distributed tilted columnar aggregates having extensive three-phase boundaries and favorable gas diffusion characteristics. Similarly prepared films doped with 1.2 at.% Au are also porous and contain highly dispersed gold present as Ni-Au alloy particles whose surfaces are strongly enriched with Au. With hydrogen as fuel, the performance of the undoped thin film anodes is comparable to that of 10–20 times thicker typical commercial anodes. With a 1:1 steam/carbon feed, the un-doped anode cell current rapidly falls to zero after 60 h. In striking contrast, the initial performance of the Au-doped anode is much higher and remains unaffected after 170 h. Under deliberately harsh conditions the performance of the Au-doped anodes decreases progressively, almost certainly due to carbon deposition. Even so, the cell maintains some activity after 3 days operation in dramatic contrast with the un-doped anode, which stops working after only three hours of use. The implications and possible practical application of these findings are discussed.
Journal of Power Sources, 324 (2016) 679-686 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.05.124

Isotope labelling to study molecular fragmentation during the dielectric barrier discharge wet reforming of methane

Montoro-Damas, AM; Gomez-Ramirez, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Cotrino, J
Isotope labelling is used to study the wet plasma reforming of methane in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor using D2O and CH4 as reactants. Besides the formation of CO and hydrogen as main products, different partitions of H and D atoms are found in the hydrogen (i.e., Hz, HD, D-2), methane (i.e., CH4, CH3D and CH2D2) and water (D2O, DHO) molecules detected by mass spectrometry as outlet gases of the plasma process. The effect of operating parameters such as applied current, residence time and the addition of oxygen to the reaction mixture is correlated with the H/D distribution in these molecules, the overall reaction yield and the energetic efficiency of the process. The results prove the plasma formation of intermediate excited species that rendering water and methane instead of CO and hydrogen greatly contribute to decrease the overall energy efficiency of the reforming process.
Journal of Power Sources, 325 (2016) 501-505 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.06.028

A panchromatic modification of the light absorption spectra of metal-organic frameworks

Otal, E. H.; Kim, M. L.; Calvo, M. E.; Karvonen, L.; Fabregas, I. O.; Sierra, C. A.; Hinestroza, J. P.
The optical absorption of UiO-66–NH2 MOF was red-shifted using a diazo-coupling reaction. The modifications performed with naphthols and aniline yielded reddish samples, and the modifications with diphenylaniline yielded dark violet ones. The photocatalytic activity of these modified MOFs was assessed for methylene blue degradation, showing a good performance relative to traditional TiO2. The degradation performance was found to correlate with the red shift of the absorption edge. These findings suggest potential applications of these materials in photocatalysis and in dye sensitized solar cells.
Chemical Communications, 52 (2016) 6665-6668 | DOI: 10.1039/c6cc02319c

Hot-pressing of (Ti,Mt)(C,N)-Co-Mo2C (Mt = Ta,Nb) powdered cermets synthesized by a mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction

Chicardi, E; Gotor, FJ; Medri, V; Guicciardi, S; Lascano, S; Cordoba, JM
A mechanically induced self-sustaining reaction (MSR) has been successfully employed for manufacturing powdered cermets based on Ti, Ti–Ta and Ti–Nb carbonitrides using Co as the binder phase and Mo2C as the sintering additive. The powders were sintered by hot-pressing, and complete chemical, microstructural and mechanical characterizations were performed on the densified cermets. When elemental Ta, Nb and/or Mo2C were added to the initial raw mixture submitted to the MSR process, smaller ceramic grains were observed after sintering, which suggested that ceramic particle growth was hindered by the presence of Ta, Nb and/or Mo in the host titanium carbonitride structure. Nanoindentation measurements enabled the determination of the hardness of the ceramic and binder phases, and values in the range of 26–29 GPa and 14–16 GPa were found, respectively. The high hardness values of the binder were related to the formation of intermetallic phases.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 292 (2016) 51-61 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.6b00232

Effect of TiO2-Pd and TiO2-Ag on the photocatalytic oxidation of diclofenac, isoproturon and phenol

Espino-Estevez, MR; Fernandez-Rodriguez, C; Gonzalez-Diaz, OM; Arana, J; Espinos, JP; Ortega-Mendez, JA; Dona-Rodriguez, JM
The effects of silver and palladium metals on the photocatalytic degradation of diclofenac sodium salt (DCF), isoproturon (IP) and phenol (PHL) in water over lab-made TiO2 synthesized following a sol-gel method were investigated. Silver and palladium catalysts were prepared by photodeposition at 1 wt.% of loading metal. The resulting materials were characterized through BET, XRD, TEM, SEM, XPS and DRS-UV-Vis. The photodeposition test conditions of both metals determined their final oxidation state, with reduced particles of palladium and silver as well as silver oxides found on the catalysts. The results showed that the type of metal had different effects on the photodegradation mechanism depending on the nature of the pollutants. Accordingly, the highest degradation rate for IP and DCF was obtained when using the catalyst photodeposited with palladium and for PHL the catalyst photodeposited with silver. The photodegradation intermediates of PHL, DCF and IP were also identified.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 298 (2016) 82-95 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.04.016

Intensifying glycerol steam reforming on a monolith catalyst: A reaction kinetic model

Bobadilla, LF; Blay, V; Alvarez, A; Dominguez, MI; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
In this work, a structured monolithic catalyst has been tested under a wide range of conditions (partial pressure, residence time, temperature and time-on-stream), with the aim of modeling its kinetic behavior and assessing its economic and upscaling potential. We have developed a sequential model to help us interpret both main trends and salient features. Unexpected behavior was found for certain parameter values, which led us to consider kinetic parasitic effects such as mass or heat transfer limitations. By independently invoking these effects, a conciliatory view of the results observed could not be reached. A combined explanation may prove successful, although overfitting could not be ruled out at this point. More importantly, however, the observed salient features of this stable and selective monolith catalyst may hold potential for process intensification of glycerol steam reforming, thus contributing to a more sustainable industry.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 306 (2016) 933–941 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.08.021

Forced deactivation and postmortem characterization of a metallic microchannel reactor employed for the preferential oxidation of CO (PROX)

Laguna, OH; Dominguez, MI; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This manuscript is one of the few works presenting evidences of the effect of prolonged use of a microreactor. Our reactor has been designed for the PROX reaction. Near to 550 h of operation under different feed-streams, including CO2 and H2O, in the 100-300 degrees C temperature range, and several regeneration cycles, and a final forced deactivation during similar to 360 h resulted in the permanent loss of activity of the microreactor. This could be attributed to some phenomena whose have compromised the chemical nature of the catalyst and that of the reactor including: displacement of the coating to the mouth of the channels, detachments and cracks of the catalytic layer, migration of some elements of the metallic substrate to the surface (Fe, Cr, Y), and deposition of carbonaceous species from the reaction over the catalytic layer and/or the metallic substrate. Furthermore, sulfur compounds were detected in both inlet and outlet zones of the microreactor, coming probably from a lubricant applied over the screws that sealed the assembling of the microreactor.  This is a first approach for understanding possible effects of deactivation during long-term applications of a microreactor in the PROX reaction that could be considered as a case study useful for future designs of this kind of devices. The presented information could be extrapolated to similar reactions where thermal treatments along with highly corrosive atmospheres would be applied, in order to carry out a more appropriate design of future generations" of microreactors, with a longer useful life. For that purpose not only the adequate selection of the catalysts must be done, but also the adequate choice of the fabrication material of the reactors is needed. 
Chemical Engineering Journal, 302 (2016) 650-662 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2016.05.104

Influence of temperature and time on the Eu3+ reaction with synthetic Na-Mica-n (n=2 and 4)

Garcia-Jimenez, MJ; Cota, A; Osuna, FJ; Pavon, E; Alba, MD
Bentonite is accepted as the best clay material for the engineered barrier of Deep Geological Repositories (DGRs). The performance of clay as the main component of the engineered barrier in the DGR has been intensively studied and the structure of the selected clay mineral play a crucial role. In this sense, a new family of synthetic swelling silicates, Na-Mica-n, with tuned layer charge (n) values between 2.0 and 4.0 per unit cell has recently been synthesized and a general synthetic method has been reported. These swelling high-charge micas could be highly valuable for the decontamination of harmful cations. The ability of these micas to immobilize Eu3+ under subcritical conditions has been probed. The adsorption was in both non-specific sites (cation exchange mechanism) and specific sites (chemical reaction or surface defects adsorption). Moreover, its adsorption capacity, under the same conditions is higher than in saponite and far superior to the bentonites. 
Chemical Engineering Journal, 284 (2016) 1174-1183 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.09.077

Reduced graphene oxide-carboxymethylcellulose layered with platinum nanoparticles/PAMAM dendrimer/magnetic nanoparticles hybrids. Application to the preparation of enzyme electrochemical biosensors

Borisova, B; Sanchez, A; Jimenez-Falcao, S; Martin, M; Salazar, P; Parrado, C; Pingarron, JM; Villalonga, R
The assembly of a novel layer-by-layer biosensor architecture using hybrid nanomaterials is explored for the construction of an amperometric enzyme biosensors. The nanostructured sensing interface was prepared with poly(dopamine)-modified magnetic nanoparticles which were covalently coated with four-generation ethylenediamine core polyamidoamine G-4 dendrimers and further decorated with platinum nanoparticles. This nanohybrid was fully characterized and further layered on glassy carbon electrodes coated with a graphene oxide-carboxymethylcellulose hybrid nanomaterial through electrostatic interactions. The nanostructured surface was then employed as scaffold for the covalent immobilization of the enzyme xanthine oxidase through a glutaraldehyde-mediated cross-linking. The enzyme electrode allowed the amperometric detection of xanthine in the 50 nM-12 mu M range, with a high sensitivity of 140 mA/M cm(2) and low detection limit of 13 nM. The biosensor exhibited high reproducibility and repeatability, and was successfully tested for the quantification of xanthine in fish samples. 
Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 232 (2016) 84-90 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.02.106

Nickel-copper bilayer nanoporous electrode prepared by physical vapor deposition at oblique angles for the non-enzymatic determination of glucose

Salazar, P; Rico, V; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
This work presents a novel bilayer Ni/Cu porous nanostructured film electrode prepared by physical vapor deposition (PVD) in an oblique angle configuration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) data revealed that the film, with an approximate thickness of 200 nm, is formed by tilted nanocolumns of around 50 nm of diameter and an inclination of 30° with respect to the surface normal. X ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) data confirmed a bilayer configuration with Cu and Ni located at the top and bottom parts of the film, respectively. A porosity of ca. 45–35% as determined by Rutherford back scattering (RBS) offered a large exposed area and excellent diffusion properties that, combined with a very good catalytic activity, rendered these films excellent electrodes for the quantitative determination of glucose. Under optimized working conditions of detection these electrodes presented a high sensitivity of 2.53 A M−1 cm−2 (R2: 0.999), a limit of detection of 0.23 μM and a time response of ca. 2 s. The sensors did not show any loss of response during a period of 4 months. The selectivity of the sensor was checked against various interferences, including physiological compounds, different sugars and ethanol, in all cases with excellent results. The feasibility of using of this sensor for practical applications was confirmed by successfully determining the glucose content in different commercial beverages.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 226 (2016) 436-443 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2015.12.003

A hybrid silver-magnetite detector based on surface enhanced Raman scattering for differentiating organic compounds

Caro, C; Sayagues, MJ; Franco, V; Conde, A; Zaderenko, P; Gamez, F
In this work a cheap detector of organic molecules is developed. It comprises a cellulose fiber doped with a mixture of magnetite and reduced silver nanoparticles, the latter ones synthesized anew. The nanoparticles and the fiber were characterized with well-established spectroscopic, microscopic and magnetic techniques, namely infrared, UV–vis spectroscopies, vibrating sample magnetometry and electronic microscopies. The so-obtained doped-fibers were tested as surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy detector in aqueous samples with a diluted mixture of two pollutant models (rhodamine 6G and picric acid), being able to differentiate between both organic compounds. Hence, the nanoparticle-impregnated fiber is proposed as a reliable preliminary qualitative and semiquantitative test of the presence of specific organic molecules in solutions. Moreover, the magnetite nanoparticles provide the detector with a saturation magnetization value that enables the separation of the fiber from the solution with the aid of a commercial magnet.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 228 (2016) 124-133 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.01.003

Dye-based photonic sensing systems

Aparicio, FJ; Alcaire, M; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Barranco, A; Holgado, M; Casquel, R; Sanza, FJ; Griol, A; Bernier, D; Dortu, F; Caceres, S; Antelius, M; Lapisa, M; Sohlstrom, H; Niklaus, F
We report on dye-based photonic sensing systems which are fabricated and packaged at wafer scale. For the first time luminescent organic nanocomposite thin-films deposited by plasma technology are integrated in photonic sensing systems as active sensing elements. The realized dye-based photonic sensors include an environmental NO2 sensor and a sunlight ultraviolet light (UV) A+B sensor. The luminescent signal from the nanocomposite thin-films responds to changes in the environment and is selectively filtered by a photonic structure consisting of a Fabry-Perot cavity. The sensors are fabricated and packaged at wafer-scale, which makes the technology viable for volume manufacturing. Prototype photonic sensor systems have been tested in real-world scenarios. 
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 228 (2016) 649-657 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.01.092

Glutamate microbiosensors based on Prussian Blue modified carbon fiber electrodes for neuroscience applications: In-vitro characterization

Salazar, P; Martin, M; O'Neill, RD; Gonzalez-Mora, JL
Herein we report a Prussian Blue modified carbon fiber electrode (CFE/PB) to be used in microbiosensors for glutamate monitoring in physiological applications as an alternative to the classical Pt and Pt-Ir transducers. Their low dimensions (∼250 μm CFE length and ∼10 μm diameter) are advantageous for measuring in living tissues. In addition, PB-modified microelectrodes allow the detection of enzyme-generated hydrogen peroxide at a low applied potential (∼0.0 V against SCE), contrasting the high potential used in many previous designs (∼0.7 V), decreasing the endogenous interference contributions. Moreover, the electrosynthesized polymer, poly-o-phenylenediamine (PoPD), was used to improve biosensor stability and selectivity. CFE/PB was conveniently characterized using impedance, Raman and XPS spectroscopies. Optimization of the fabrication procedure and analytical conditions is described, including activation of CFE/PB, enzyme enrichment, cross-linking, stabilization and anti-interference. A range of analytical parameters were also characterized such as sensitivity, limit of detection, linear range, and enzymatic loading. Finally, an optimized biosensor displaying a linear sensitivity of 135 ± 2 nA μM−1 cm−2 (n = 3), LOD of <2 μM, linear range up to 150 μM and effectively free of interference, is proposed as a suitable candidate for in-vivo glutamate monitoring in the central nervous system.
Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical, 235 (2016) 117-125 | DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2016.05.057

High temperature internal friction in a Ti-46Al-1Mo-0.2Si intermetallic, comparison with creep behaviour

Castillo-Rodriguez, M; No, ML; Jimenez, JA; Ruano, OA; Juan, JS
Advanced gamma-TiAl based intermetallics Mo-bearing have been developed to obtain the fine-grained microstructure required for superplastic deformation to be used during further processing. In the present work we have studied an alloy of Ti-46.8Al-1Mo-0.2Si (at%) with two different microstructures, ascast material with a coarse grain size above 300 mu m, and the hot extruded material exhibiting a grain size smaller than 20 mu m. We have used a mechanical spectrometer especially developed for high temperature internal friction measurements to study the defect mobility processes taking place at high temperature. The internal friction spectra at different frequencies has been studied and analyzed up to 1360 K in order to characterize the relaxation processes appearing inthis temperature range. A relaxation peak, with a maximum in between 900 K and 1080 K, depending on the oscillating frequency, has been attributed to Ti-atoms diffusion by the stress-induced reorientation of Al-V-Ti-Al elastic dipoles. The high temperature background in both microstructural states, as-cast and extruded, has been analyzed, measuring the apparent activation parameters, in particular the apparent energies of E-cast(IF) = 4.4 +/- 0.05 eV and E-ext(IF) = 4.75 +/- 0.05 eV respectively. These results have been compared to those obtained on the same materials by creep deformation. We may conclude that the activation parameters obtained by internal friction analysis, are consistent with the ones measured by creep. Furthermore, the analysis of the high temperaturebackground allows establish the difference on creep resistance for both microstructural states. 
Acta Materialia, 103 (2016) 46-56 | DOI: 10.1016/j.actamat.2015.09.052

Solution processed high refractive index contrast distributed Bragg reflectors

Anaya, M; Rubino, A; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
We have developed a method to alternate porous and dense dielectric films in order to build high refractive index contrast distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) capable of reflecting very efficiently in a targeted spectral range employing a small number of layers in the stack. Porous layers made of SiO2 nanoparticles and compact sol–gel processed TiO2 layers are sequentially deposited. The key to the preservation of porosity of every other layer during the deposition process is the use of a sacrificial layer of polystyrene that prevents the infiltration of the interstitial voids between nanoparticles with the homogeneous solution of TiO2 precursors. Our approach allows preparing a series of DBRs operating along the whole visible spectral range. Reflectance values as high as 90% are achieved from only seven layers. The particular distribution of porosity along one direction gives rise to an interesting interplay between the optical properties of the system and the vapor pressure in the surrounding atmosphere, which we foresee could be put into practice in gas sensing devices.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4 (2016) 4532-4537 | DOI: 10.1039/C6TC00663A

Transparent polycrystalline SrREGa3O7 melilite ceramics: potential phosphors for tuneable solid state lighting

Boyer, M; Carrion, AJF; Ory, S; Becerro, AI; Villette, S; Eliseeva, SV; Petoud, S; Aballea, P; Matzen, G; Allix, M
Full and congruent crystallization from glass is applied to the SrREGa3O7 melilite family (RE = Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb and Y). This innovative process enables the synthesis of polycrystalline ceramics exhibiting high transparency both in the visible and near infrared regions, despite tetragonal crystal structures and micrometer scale grain sizes. Moreover, glass crystallization provides an original route to synthesize new crystalline phases which are not accessible via a classic solid state reaction, as demonstrated for SrYbGa3O7 and SrTmGa3O7. To illustrate the potential optical applications of such materials, SrGdGa3O7 transparent polycrystalline ceramics are doped with Dy3+ or Tb3+/Eu3+ in order to generate white light emission under UV excitation. It is foreseen that such transparent melilite ceramic phosphors, prepared via a cost-effective process, can be successfully used in solid state lighting devices of considerable technological interest.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 15 (2016) 3238-3247 | DOI: 10.1039/C6TC00633G

High temperature oxidation resistance of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-based cermets

Chicardi, E; Cordoba, JM; Gotor, FJ
Cermets based on titanium-tantalum carbonitride were oxidized in static air between 800 degrees C and 1100 degrees C for 48 h. The thermogravimetric and microstructural study showed an outstanding reduction in the oxidation of more than 90% when the Ta content was increased. In cermets with low Ta content, the formation of a thin CoO/Co3O4 outer layer tends to disappear by reacting with the underlying rutile phase, which emerges at the surface. However, in cermets with higher Ta content, the formation of an external titanate layer, observed even at a low temperature, appears to prevent the oxygen diffusion and the oxidation progression. 
Corrosion Science, 102 (2016) 125-136 | DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.10.001

Kinetics of high-temperature oxidation of (Ti,Ta)(C,N)-based cermets

Chicardi, E; Cordoba, JM; Gotor, FJ
The kinetics of the high-temperature oxidation of titanium–tantalum carbonitride-based cermets with different Ti/Ta ratios was studied. Isothermal oxidation tests were conducted under static air for 48 h at temperatures between 700 °C and 1200 °C. The oxidation satisfied the parabolic kinetics, characteristic of the existence of a protective oxide layer. The apparent activation energy suggests the rate-controlling process during oxidation is the simultaneous inward and outward diffusion of oxygen and titanium, respectively, through the formed protective layer, consisting mainly of a rutile phase. A higher Ta(V) content in the rutile decreased the oxygen diffusivity due to the reduction of oxygen vacancy concentration.
Corrosion Science, 102 (2016) 168-177 | DOI: 10.1016/j.corsci.2015.10.006

Vacuum template synthesis of multifunctional nanotubes with tailored nanostructured walls

Filippin, AN; Macias-Montero, M; Saghi, Z; Idigoras, J; Burdet, P; Barranco, A; Midgley, P; Anta, JA; Borras, A
A three-step vacuum procedure for the fabrication of vertical TiO2 and ZnO nanotubes with three dimensional walls is presented. The method combines physical vapor deposition of small-molecules, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of inorganic functional thin films and layers and a post-annealing process in vacuum in order to remove the organic template. As a result, an ample variety of inorganic nanotubes are made with tunable length, hole dimensions and shapes and tailored wall composition, microstructure, porosity and structure. The fabrication of multishell nanotubes combining different semiconducting oxides and metal nanoparticles is as well explored. This method provides a feasible and reproducible route for the fabrication of high density arrays of vertically alligned nanotubes on processable substrates. The emptying mechanism and microstructure of the nanotubes have been elucidated through SEM, STEM, HAADF-STEM tomography and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In this article, as a proof of concept, it is presented the straightforward integration of ZnO nanotubes as photoanode in a photovoltaic cell and as a photonic oxygen gas sensor.
Scientific Reports, 5 (2016) 20637 | DOI: 10.1038/srep20637

Highly Efficient Perovskite Solar Cells with Tunable Structural Color

W. Zhang, M. Anaya, G. Lozano, M.E. Calvo, M.B. Johnston, H. Míguez, H.J. Snaith
The performance of perovskite solar cells has been progressing over the past few years and efficiency is likely to continue to increase. However, a negative aspect for the integration of perovskite solar cells in the built environment is that the color gamut available in these materials is very limited and does not cover the green-to-blue region of the visible spectrum, which has been a big selling point for organic photovoltaics. Here, we integrate a porous photonic crystal (PC) scaffold within the photoactive layer of an opaque perovskite solar cell following a bottom-up approach employing inexpensive and scalable liquid processing techniques. The photovoltaic devices presented herein show high efficiency with tunable color across the visible spectrum. This now imbues the perovskite solar cells with highly desirable properties for cladding in the built environment and encourages design of sustainable colorful buildings and iridescent electric vehicles as future power generation sources.
Nano Letters, 15 (2015) 1698-1702 | DOI: 10.1021/nl504349z

Sonogashira Cross-Coupling and Homocoupling on a Silver Surface: Chlorobenzene and Phenylacetylene on Ag(100)

Sanchez-Sanchez, C; Orozco, N; Holgado, JP; Beaumont, SK; Kyriakou, G; Watson, DJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Feria, L; Sanz, JF; Lambert, RM
Scanning tunneling microscopy, temperature-programmed reaction, near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, and density functional theory calculations were used to study the adsorption and reactions of phenylacetylene and chlorobenzene on Ag(100). In the absence of solvent molecules and additives, these molecules underwent homocoupling and Sonogashira cross-coupling in an unambiguously heterogeneous mode. Of particular interest is the use of silver, previously unexplored, and chlorobenzene—normally regarded as relatively inert in such reactions. Both molecules adopt an essentially flat-lying conformation for which the observed and calculated adsorption energies are in reasonable agreement. Their magnitudes indicate that in both cases adsorption is predominantly due to dispersion forces for which interaction nevertheless leads to chemical activation and reaction. Both adsorbates exhibited pronounced island formation, thought to limit chemical activity under the conditions used and posited to occur at island boundaries, as was indeed observed in the case of phenylacetylene. The implications of these findings for the development of practical catalytic systems are considered.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 137 (2015) 940-947 | DOI: 10.1021/ja5115584

Theory and Practice: Bulk Synthesis of C3B and its H2- and Li-Storage Capacity

King, TC; Matthews, PD; Glass, H; Cormack, JA; Holgado, JP; Leskes, M; Griffin, JM; Scherman, OA; Barker, PD; Grey, CP; Dutton, SE; Lambert, RM; Tustin, G; Alavi, A; Wright, DS
Previous theoretical studies of C3B have suggested that boron-doped graphite is a promising H2- and Li-storage material, with large maximum capacities. These characteristics could lead to exciting applications as a lightweight H2-storage material for automotive engines and as an anode in a new generation of batteries. However, for these applications to be realized a synthetic route to bulk C3B must be developed. Here we show the thermolysis of a single-source precursor (1,3-(BBr2)2C6H4) to produce graphitic C3B, thus allowing the characteristics of this elusive material to be tested for the first time. C3B was found to be compositionally uniform but turbostratically disordered. Contrary to theoretical expectations, the H2- and Li-storage capacities are lower than anticipated, results that can partially be explained by the disordered nature of the material. This work suggests that to model the properties of graphitic materials more realistically, the possibility of disorder must be considered.
Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 54 (2015) 5919-5923 | DOI: 10.1002/anie.201412200

Environmental Effects on the Photophysics of Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites

Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Anaya, M; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
The photophysical properties of films of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites under different ambient conditions are herein reported. We demonstrate that their luminescent properties are determined by the interplay between photoinduced activation and darkening processes, which strongly depend on the atmosphere surrounding the samples. We have isolated oxygen and moisture as the key elements in each process, activation and darkening, both of which involve the interaction with photogenerated carriers. These findings show that environmental factors play a key role in the performance of lead halide perovskites as efficient luminescent materials.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 6 (2015) 2200-2205 | DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b00785

Optical Description of Mesostructured Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskite Solar Cells

Anaya, M; Lozano, G; Calvo, ME; Zhang, W; Johnston, MB; Snaith, HJ; Miguez, H
Herein we describe both theoretically and experimentally the optical response of solution-processed organic–inorganic halide perovskite solar cells based on mesostructured scaffolds. We develop a rigorous theoretical model using a method based on the propagation of waves in layered media, which allows visualizing the way in which light is spatially distributed across the device and serves to quantify the fraction of light absorbed by each medium comprising the cell. The discrimination between productive and parasitic absorption yields an accurate determination of the internal quantum efficiency. State-of-the-art devices integrating mesoporous scaffolds infiltrated with perovskite are manufactured and characterized to support the calculations. This combined experimental and theoretical analysis provides a rational understanding of the optical behavior of perovskite cells and can be beneficial for the judicious design of devices with improved performance. Notably, our model justifies the presence of a solid perovskite capping layer in all of the highest efficiency perovskite solar cells based on thinner mesoporous scaffolds.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 6 (2015) 48-53 | DOI: 10.1021/jz502351s

Synergy between gold and oxygen vacancies in gold supported on Zr-doped ceria catalysts for the CO oxidation

Laguna, OH; Perez, A; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
The CO oxidation activity of 1 wt.% gold catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation on a series of ceria doped with Zr supports was studied. The supports (10, 25 and 50 Zr at.%) were synthesized by a pseudo sol-gel method through the thermal decomposition of the corresponding metallic propionates. All the prepared solids were characterized by means of XRF, BET, XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, and H-2-TPR. Solid solution was obtained in all mixed systems, while the segregation of different Ce-Zr oxides was observed for the solid with the 50 Zr at.%. The oxygen vacancies population and the amount of easier reducible Ce4+ species in the solids increase with the Zr content. No major textural or structural modifications were detected after gold deposition, although a strong Au-support interaction was generated. Such interaction is strongly influenced by the nucleation of gold deposits on the oxygen vacancies and consequently the amount of Zr inserted in the ceria network also determines the dispersion of gold. The presence of gold eases the surface reduction at lower temperatures, and as higher the amount of Zr in the gold catalysts, higher the CO conversion at low temperatures, probably due to the enhancement of the electronic transfer at the surface of the catalysts. 
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 176 (2015) 385-395 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.04.019

Evolution of H-2 photoproduction with Cu content on CuOx-TiO2 composite catalysts prepared by a microemulsion method

Kubacka, A; Munoz-Batista, MJ; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Obregon, S; Colon, G
Copper oxides in contact with anatase correspond to promising materials with high activity in the photo-production of hydrogen by aqueous reforming of alcohols. By a single pot microemulsion method we obtained a series of Cu-Ti composite systems with controlled copper content in the 0-25 wt.% range. The scanning of such a wide range of composition led to the discovery of two well differentiated maxima in the photo-reaction performance. These maxima present rather high and relatively similar reaction rates and photonic efficiencies but are ascribed to the presence of different copper species. A multi-technique analysis of the materials indicates that the maxima obtained comes from optimizing different steps of the reaction; while the first would be connected with a positive effect on anatase charge handling performance the second seems exclusively related to electron capture by surface copper species.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 163 (2015) 214-222 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.08.005

Synthesis and application of layered titanates in the photocatalytic degradation of phenol

Ivanova, S; Penkova, A; Hidalgo, MD; Navio, JA; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This study proposes a direct synthetic route to single titanate sheets through the mild and versatile conditions of the “chimie douce”. The stages of the production include the complexation of the titanium alkoxide precursor by benzoic acid, the formation of titanium oxo-clusters and their controlled transformation into single sheet titanates during the hydrolysis stage. The resulted material appears to be an excellent precursor for self-organized TiO2 nanotubes formation which presents an excellent activity as photocatalyst in the photo-degradation of phenol.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 163 (2015) 23-29 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.07.048

Study of the phenol photocatalytic degradation over TiO2 modified by sulfation, fluorination, and platinum nanoparticles photodeposition

Murcia, JJ; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA; Arana, J; Dona-Rodriguez, JM
In this work, titanium dioxide has been modified by sulfation, fluorination and simultaneous Pt nanoparticles deposition; the influence of these treatments on the photocatalytic activity of this oxide has been studied. A complete characterization study was carried out and it was observed that sulfation, fluorination and metallization were important factors influencing the TiO2 properties. The photocatalytic activity of the materials prepared was evaluated in the phenol degradation and it was found that TiO2fluorination significantly increased the phenol photodegradation rate, compared with bare TiO2, sulfated TiO2 or the commercial TiO2 Degussa P25. It was also found that Pt photodeposition on sulphated TiO2 notably increased the photocatalytic activity of this oxide, while Pt on fluorinated TiO2 did not modify significantly the phenol photodegradation rate.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 179 (2015) 305-312 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.05.040

Cu–TiO2 systems for the photocatalytic H2 production: Influence of structural and surface support features

Obregon, S; Munoz-Batista, MJ; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Kubacka, A; Colon, G
The influence of different TiO2 supports on the Cu active species has been studied. It was found that the photocatalytic H2 evolution is highly affected by the structural and electronic features of surface Cu species. Thus, metal dispersion and oxidation state appears strongly conditioned by the structural and surface properties of the TiO2 support. We have examined three TiO2 supports prepared by different synthetic methods; sol–gel, hydrothermal and microemulsion. In addition, we have induced structural and surface modifications by sulfate pretreatment over freshly prepared TiO2 precursors and subsequent calcination. Notably different copper dispersion and oxidation state is obtained by using these different TiO2 supports. From the wide structural and surface analysis of the catalysts we are able to propose that the occurrence of highly disperse Cu2+ species, the sample surface area as well as the crystallinity of the TiO2 support are directly related to the photocatalytic activity for H2 production reaction.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 179 (2015) 468-478 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.05.043

Fine Tuning the Emission Properties of Nanoemitters in Multilayered Structures by Deterministic Control of their Local Photonic Environment

Alberto Jiménez-Solano, Juan Francisco Galisteo-López and Hernán Míguez
Deterministic control on the dynamics of organic nanoemitters is achieved through precise control of its photonic environment. Resonators are fabricated by a combination of spin- and dip-coating techniques, which allows placement of the emitters at different positions within the sample, thus acting as a probe of the local density of states.
Small, 11 (2015) 2727-2732 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.201402898

Nanocolumnar 1-dimensional TiO2 photoanodes deposited by PVD-OAD for perovskite solar cell fabrication

Javier Ramos, F.; Oliva-Ramirez, Manuel; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Graetzel, Michael; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.; Ahmad, Shahzada
Perovskite solar cells have attracted increasing interest among the photovoltaic community in the last few years owing to their unique properties and high efficiency. In the present work, we report the fabrication of perovskite solar cells based on highly ordered 1-dimensional porous TiO2 photoanodes, which are uniform on a large area. These nanocolumnar porous TiO2 photoanodes were deposited by physical vapor deposition in an oblique angle configuration (PVD-OAD) by varying the zenithal angle between the target and the substrate normal. Perovskite infiltration into these 1-dimensional nanocolumnar structures was homogeneous through the entire thickness of the porous layer as revealed by secondary ion mass spectroscopy studies. The fabricated solar cells, with an optimized thickness of the photoanode and with industrially accepted methods, will pave the way for easy implementation on a large scale.
Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3 (2015) 13291-13298 | DOI: 10.1039/c5ta02238j

Full solution processed mesostructured optical resonators integrating colloidal semiconductor quantum dots

Calvo, ME; Hidalgo, N; Schierholz, R; Kovacs, A; Fernandez, A; Bellino, MG; Soler-Illia, GJAA; Miguez, H
Herein we show a solution based synthetic pathway to obtain a resonant optical cavity with embedded colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (CSQDs). The optical cavity pore network, surrounded by two dense Bragg mirrors, was designed ad hoc to selectively host the quantum dots, while uncontrolled infiltration of those in the rest of the layered structure was prevented. Coupling between the optical resonant modes of the host and the natural emission of the embedded nanoparticles gives rise to the fine tuning of the luminescence spectrum extracted from the ensemble. Our approach overcomes, without the need for an encapsulating agent and exclusively by solution processing, the difficulties that arise from the low thermal and chemical stability of the CSQDs. It opens the route to achieving precise control over their location and hence over the spectral properties of light emitted by these widely employed nanomaterials. Furthermore, as the porosity of the cavity is preserved after infiltration, the system remains responsive to environmental changes, which provides an added value to the proposed structure.
Nanoscale, 7 (2015) 16583-16589 | DOI: 10.1039/C5NR03977K

Sunlight Absorption Engineering for Thermophotovoltaics: Contributions from the Optical Design

Miguez, H
Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up.
ChemSusChem, 8 (2015) 786-788 | DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201403361

Design and realization of transparent solar modules based on luminescent solar concentrators integrating nanostructured photonic crystals

Jimenez-Solano, A; Delgado-Sanchez, JM; Calvo, ME; Miranda-Munoz, JM; Lozano, G; Sancho, D; Sanchez-Cortezon, E; Miguez, H
Herein, we present a prototype of a photovoltaic module that combines a luminescent solar concentrator integrating one-dimensional photonic crystals and in-plane CuInGaSe2 (CIGS) solar cells. Highly uniform and wide-area nanostructured multilayers with photonic crystal properties were deposited by a cost-efficient and scalable liquid processing amenable to large-scale fabrication. Their role is to both maximize light absorption in the targeted spectral range, determined by the fluorophore employed, and minimize losses caused by emission at angles within the escape cone of the planar concentrator. From a structural perspective, the porous nature of the layers facilitates the integration with the thermoplastic polymers typically used to encapsulate and seal these modules. Judicious design of the module geometry, as well as of the optical properties of the dielectric mirrors employed, allows optimizing light guiding and hence photovoltaic performance while preserving a great deal of transparency. Optimized in-plane designs like the one herein proposed are of relevance for building integrated photovoltaics, as ease of fabrication, long-term stability and improved performance are simultaneously achieved.
Progress in Photovoltaics, 23 (2015) 1785-1792 | DOI: 10.1002/pip.2621

H-2 oxidation as criterion for PrOx catalyst selection: Examples based on Au-Co-O-x-supported systems

Reina, TR; Megias-Sayago, C; Florez, AP; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
A new approach for understanding PrOx reaction over gold catalysts is proposed in this work. The competition between H-2 and CO oxidation has been studied over a series of Au/MOx/Al2O3 (M = Ce and Co) catalysts in simulated post-reforming gas stream, containing H2O and CO2 for H-2 cleanup goals. The catalysts' behavior is correlated to their oxygen storage capacity, redox behavior, and oxidation ability. The estimation of the reaction rates reveals that in these solids the H-2 combustion, the selectivity limiting factor in the PrOx process, is mainly controlled by the support and not by the gold presence. The possible use of the hydrogen oxidation reaction as a catalyst selection criterion is discussed. 
Journal of Catalysis, 326 (2015) 161-171 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2015.03.015

Anisotropic In-Plane Conductivity and Dichroic Gold Plasmon Resonance in Plasma-Assisted ITO Thin Films e-Beam-Evaporated at Oblique Angles

Parra-Barranco, Julian; Garcia-Garcia, Francisco J.; Rico, Victor; Borras, Ana; Lopez-Santos, Carmen; Frutos, Fabian; Barranco, Angel; Gonzalez-Elipe, Agustin R.
ITO thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation at oblique angles (OA), directly and while assisting their growth with a downstream plasma. The films microstructure, characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and glancing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, consisted of tilted and separated nanostructures. In the plasma assisted films, the tilting angle decreased and the nanocolumns became associated in the form of bundles along the direction perpendicular to the flux of evaporated material. The annealed films presented different in-depth and sheet resistivity as confirmed by scanning conductivity measurements taken for the individual nanocolumns. In addition, for the plasma-assisted thin films, two different sheet resistance values were determined by measuring along the nanocolumn bundles or the perpendicular to it. This in-plane anisotropy induces the electrochemical deposition of elongated gold nanostructures. The obtained Au-ITO composite thin films were characterized by anisotropic plasmon resonance absorption and a dichroic behavior when examined with linearly polarized light.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 10993-11001 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b02197

Fabrication of Optical Multi layer Devices from Porous Silicon Coatings with Closed Porosity by Magnetron Sputtering

Caballero-Hernandez, Jaime; Godinho, Vanda; Lacroix, Bertrand; Jimenez de Haro, Maria C.; Jamon, Damien; Fernandez, Asuncion
The fabrication of single-material photonic-multilayer devices is explored using a new methodology to produce porous silicon layers by magnetron sputtering. Our bottom-up methodology produces highly stable amorphous porous silicon films with a controlled refractive index using magnetron sputtering and incorporating a large amount of deposition gas inside the closed pores. The influence of the substrate bias on the formation of the closed porosity was explored here for the first time when He was used as the deposition gas. We successfully simulated, designed, and characterized Bragg reflectors and an optical microcavity that integrates these porous layers. The sharp interfaces between the dense and porous layers combined with the adequate control of the refractive index and thickness allowed for excellent agreement between the simulation and the experiments. The versatility of the magnetron sputtering technique allowed for the preparation of these structures for a wide range of substrates such as polymers while also taking advantage of the oblique angle deposition to prepare Bragg reflectors with a controlled lateral gradient in the stop band wavelengths.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 13880-13897 | DOI: 10.1021/acsami.5b02356

Laser Treatment of Ag@ZnO Nanorods as Long-Life-Span SERS Surfaces

Macias-Montero, M; Pelaez, RJ; Rico, VJ; Saghi, Z; Midgley, P; Afonso, CN; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Borras, A
UV nanosecond laser pulses have been used to produce a unique surface nanostructuration of Ag@ZnO supported nanorods (NRs). The NRs were fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at low temperature applying a silver layer as promoter. The irradiation of these structures with single nanosecond pulses of an ArF laser produces the melting and reshaping of the end of the NRs that aggregate in the form of bundles terminated by melted ZnO spherical particles. Well-defined silver nanoparticles (NPs), formed by phase separation at the surface of these melted ZnO particles, give rise to a broad plasmonic response consistent with their anisotropic shape. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) in the as-prepared Ag@ZnO NRs arrays was proved by using a Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) chromophore as standard analyte. The surface modifications induced by laser treatment improve the stability of this system as SERS substrate while preserving its activity.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 2331-2339 | DOI: 10.1021/am506622x

Self-lubricity of WSex nanocomposite coatings

S. Dominguez-Meister; M. Conte; A. Igartua; T.C. Rojas; J.C. Sánchez-López
Transition metal chalcogenides with lamellar structure are known for their use in tribological applications although limited to vacuum due to their easy degradation in the presence of oxygen and/or moisture. Here we present a tailored WSex coating with low friction (0.07) and low wear rates (3 × 10–7 mm3 Nm–1) even in ambient air. To understand the low friction behavior and lower chemical reactivity a tribological study is carried out in a high-vacuum tribometer under variable pressure (atmospheric pressure to 1 × 10–8 mbar). A detailed investigation of the film nanostructure and composition by advanced transmission electron microscopy techniques with nanoscale resolution determined that the topmost layer is formed by nanocrystals of WSe2 embedded in an amorphous matrix richer in W, a-W(Se). After the friction test, an increased crystalline order and orientation of WSe2 lamellas along the sliding direction were observed in the interfacial region. On the basis of high angle annular dark field, scanning transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis, the release of W atoms from the interstitial basal planes of the a-W(Se) phase is proposed. These W atoms reaching the surface, play a sacrificial role preventing the lubricant WSe2 phase from oxidation. The increase of the WSe2 crystalline order and the buffer effect of W capturing oxygen atoms would explain the enhanced chemical and tribological response of this designed nanocomposite material.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 7 (2015) 7979-7986 | DOI: 10.1021/am508939s

Effect of catalytic graphitization on the electrochemical behavior of wood derived carbons for use in supercapacitors

Gutierrez-Pardo, A; Ramirez-Rico, J; Cabezas-Rodriguez, R; Martinez-Fernandez, J
Porous graphitic carbons were successfully obtained from wood precursors through pyrolysis using a transition metal as catalyst. Once the catalyst is removed, the resulting material mimics the microstructure of the wood and presents high surface area, open and interconnected porosity and large pore volume, high crystallinity and good electrical conductivity, making these carbons interesting for electrochemical devices. Carbons obtained were studied as electrodes for supercapacitors in half cell experiments, obtaining high capacitance values in a basic media (up to 133 F g−1 at current densities of 20 mA g−1 and 35 F g−1 at current densities of 1 A g−1). Long-cycling experiments showed excellent stability of the electrodes with no reduction of the initial capacitance values after 1000 cycles in voltammetry.
Journal of Power Sources, 278 (2015) 18-26 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2014.12.030

Plasma reforming of methane in a tunable ferroelectric packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge reactor

Montoro-Damas, AM; Brey, JJ; Rodriguez, MA; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Cotrino, J
In a tunable circular parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge reactor with pellets of a ferroelectric material separating the electrodes we investigate the plasma reforming of methane trying to maximize both the reaction yield and the energetic efficiency of the process. The geometrical configuration of the reactor (gap between electrodes, active electrode area) and the ferroelectric pellet size have been systematically varied to determine their influence on the process efficiency. The comparison between wet (with H2O as reactant), oxidative (with O2), and dry (with CO2) reforming reactions reveals a higher efficiency for the former with CO + H2 as main reaction products. The maximum energetic efficiency EE, defined as the produced number of litres of H2 per kWh, found for optimized working conditions at low-level applied power is higher than the up to date best-known results. A comprehensive discussion of the influence of the different parameters affecting the reaction yield is carried out.
Journal of Power Sources, 296 (2015) 268-275 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2015.07.038

Nanocolumnar coatings with selective behavior towards osteoblast and Staphylococcus aureus proliferation

Izquierdo-Barba, Isabel; Miguel Garcia-Martin, Jose; Alvarez, Rafael; Palmero, Alberto; Esteban, Jaime; Perez-Jorge, Concepcion; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regi, Maria
Bacterial colonization and biofilm formation on orthopedic implants is one of the worst scenarios in orthopedic surgery, in terms of both patient prognosis and healthcare costs. Tailoring the surfaces of implants at the nanoscale to actively promote bone bonding while avoiding bacterial colonization represents an interesting challenge to achieving better clinical outcomes. Herein, a Ti6Al4V alloy of medical grade has been coated with Ti nanostructures employing the glancing angle deposition technique by magnetron sputtering. The resulting surfaces have a high density of nanocolumnar structures, which exhibit strongly impaired bacterial adhesion that inhibits biofilm formation, while osteoblasts exhibit good cell response with similar behavior to the initial substrates. These results are discussed on the basis of a "lotus leaf effect" induced by the surface nanostructures and the different sizes and biological characteristics of osteoblasts and Staphylococcus aureus.
Acta Biomaterialia, 15 (2015) 20-28 | DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2014.12.023

Biocompatible Films with Tailored Spectral Response for Prevention of DNA Damage in Skin Cells

Nunez-Lozano, R; Pimentel, B; Castro-Smirnov, JR; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H; de la Cueva-Mendez, G
A hybrid nanostructured organic–in­organic biocompatible film capable of efficiently blocking a preselected range of ultraviolet light is designed to match the genotoxic action spectrum of human epithelial cells. This stack protects cultured human skin cells from UV-induced DNA lesions. As the shielding mechanism relies exclusively on reflection, the secondary effects due to absorption harmful radiation are prevented
Advanced Healthcare Materials, 4 (2015) 1944-1948 | DOI: 10.1002/adhm.201500223

Ca-looping for postcombustion CO2 capture: A comparative analysis on the performances of dolomite and limestone

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
The low cost and wide availability of natural limestone (CaCO3) is at the basis of the industrial competitiveness of the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture as already demonstrated by similar to 1 Mw(t) scale pilot projects. A major focus of studies oriented towards further improving the efficiency of the CaL technology is how to prevent the gradual loss of capture capacity of limestone derived CaO as the number of carbonation/calcination cycles is increased. Natural dolomite (MgCa(CO3)(2)) has been proposed as an alternative sorbent precursor to limestone. Yet, carbonation of MgO is not thermodynamically favorable at CaL conditions, which may hinder the capture performance of dolomite. In the work described in this paper we carried out a thermogravimetric analysis on the multicyclic capture performance of natural dolomite under realistic regeneration conditions necessarily implying high calcination temperature, high CO2 concentration and fast transitions between the carbonation and calcination stages. Our study demonstrates that the sorbent derived from dolomite has a greater capture capacity as compared to limestone. SEM analysis shows that MgO grains in the decomposed dolomite are resistant to sintering under severe calcination conditions and segregate from CaO acting as a thermally stable support which mitigates the multicyclic loss of CaO conversion. Moreover, full decomposition of dolomite is achieved at significantly lower calcination temperatures as compared to limestone, which would help improving further the industrial competitiveness of the technology. 
Applied Energy, 138 (2015) 202-215 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.10.087

An Optically Controlled Microscale Elevator Using Plasmonic Janus Particles

Nedev, S; Carretero-Palacios, S; Kuhler, P; Lohmuller, T; Urban, AS; Anderson, LJE; Feldmann, J
In this article, we report how Janus particles, composed of a silica sphere with a gold half-shell, can be not only stably trapped by optical tweezers but also displaced controllably along the axis of the laser beam through a complex interplay between optical and thermal forces. Scattering forces orient the asymmetric particle, while strong absorption on the metal side induces a thermal gradient, resulting in particle motion. An increase in the laser power leads to an upward motion of the particle, while a decrease leads to a downward motion. We study this reversible axial displacement, including a hysteretic jump in the particle position that is a result of the complex pattern of a tightly focused laser beam structure above the focal plane. As a first application we simultaneously trap a spherical gold nanoparticle and show that we can control the distance between the two particles inside the trap. This photonic micron-scale “elevator” is a promising tool for thermal force studies, remote sensing, and optical and thermal micromanipulation experiments.
ACS Photonics, 2 (2015) 491-496 | DOI: 10.1021/ph500371z

Hydration and carbolenation reactions of calcium oxide by weathering: Kinetics and changes in the nanostructure

Morales-Florez, V; Santos, A; Romero-Hermida, I; Esquivias, L
The weathering reactions of hydration and carbonation of nanostructured calcium oxide with atmospheric moisture and carbon dioxide have been characterized. This work is the first-to-date combined kinetic and nanostructural research on CaO oriented to two key processes for different systems, i.e. hardening of construction materials and carbon mineral sequestration. The evolution of the precipitated crystalline phases was monitored by X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry, along with structural characterization by nitrogen physisorption, electron microscopy and small-angle scattering. Complete hydration of the samples was always found prior to the onset of carbon sequestration, which depended on the nanostructure of the samples. Hence, carbonation started after 300 h of weathering for samples with a specific surface area of 40 m(2)/g, whereas carbonation of the samples with 20 m(2)/g occurred after 550 h. Full carbonation from atmospheric CO2 (100% efficiency) was obtained in all cases. This combined research was completed by developing an empirical description of the weathering reactions in terms of a two-process Random Pore Model. Finally, this work aimed to determine the role of the nanostructure of samples based on industrial wastes as one of the most important factors for developing efficient carbon sequestration technologies.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 265 (2015) 194-200 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2014.12.062

Toughening of complete solid solution cermets by graphite addition

Chicardi, E; Torres, Y; Sayagues, MJ; Medri, V; Melandri, C; Cordoba, JM; Gotor, FJ
(Ti0.95Ta0.05)(C0.5N0.5)-Co complete solid solution cermets (CSCs) were developed by a mechanochemical synthesis process and a pressureless sintering method. The effect of different percentages of graphite used as a sintering additive on the nature of the binder phase and the mechanical properties of the cermets was investigated. Microstructural and mechanical characterisations were carried out by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Vickers hardness, indentation fracture toughness and nanoindentation. The addition of graphite modified the carbon activity during sintering, reducing the dissolution of carbonitride ceramic particles into the molten binder. The amount of Ti and Ta remaining in the binder after sintering gradually decreased as the amount of graphite added increased, which induced a change in the nature of the binder phase. When no graphite was added, the binder consisted of the brittle TixTa1−xCo2 intermetallic phase. With the increase in the amount of graphite added, the formation of more ductile phases, such as TixTa1−xCo3 and α-Co, was observed, causing a significant improvement in the toughness of the cermets.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 267 (2015) 297-305 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.01.022

Uranium immobilization by FEBEX bentonite and steel barriers in hydrothermal conditions

Villa-Alfageme, M; Hurtado, S; El Mrabet, S; Pazos, MC; Castro, MA; Alba, MD
FEBEX clay is considered a reference material in engineered barriers for safe storage of nuclear waste and uranium is a minor component of high-level radioactive waste (HLRW) and a main component of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF). Here, the kinetics of reaction of uranium with FEBEX was investigated in addition to the uranium immobilisation ability and the structural analysis of the reaction products. Hydrothermal treatments were accomplished with UO22+ and tetravalent actinide simulator ZrO2+, also present in HLRW. The quantification of the reaction was performed through gamma spectrometry of uranium. Two mechanisms for UO22+ retention by FEBEX were detected: adsorption and formation of stable and insoluble new phases. The structural analyses performed using ZrO2+, confirmed the uranium adsorption and the presence of new phases, ZrO2 and Zr(SiO4), that emphasise the existence of a chemical reaction with the bentonite. The analysis of the velocity of reaction uranium-clay minerals revealed temperature dependence. An exponential fitting suggested that the removal of uranium from solution at temperatures over 200 °C could be completed in less than a year. For lower temperatures, several years are needed. Milliequivalents of UO22+ immobilised by the clay depended on temperature and time and were over cation exchange capacity (CEC) of FEBEX even at 100 °C (reaching 600% of CEC). The reaction with steel, also temperature dependent, was finally analysed. At 200 °C 40–70% of uranium reacted with steel. But only 30–15% reacted at 300 °C and 100 °C. The reactions provide a stable immobilisation mechanism for uranium even when its sorption and swelling capacities fail. Our experiments will be of particular interest for very deep borehole disposals were higher temperatures and pressures are expected.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 269 (2015) 279-287 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.01.134

Microreactors technology for hydrogen purification: Effect of the catalytic layer thickness on CuOx/CeO2-coated microchannel reactors for the PROX reaction

Laguna, O. H.; Castano, M. Gonzalez; Centeno, M. A.; Odriozola, J. A.
Two blocks of microreactors composed by 100 microchannels and coated, respectively, with 150 and 300 mg of a CuOx/CeO2 catalyst, were prepared and tested in the preferential oxidation of CO in presence of H2 (PROX). The deposition of different amount of catalyst resulted in different catalytic layer thicknesses thus modifying the catalytic performances of the microreactor. The evaluation of the main reaction variables (the space velocity, the O2-to-CO ratio and the presence of H2O and/or CO2 in the stream) was performed over both microreactors and compared to that of the parent powder catalyst. The least loaded microreactor, with a coating thickness around 10 μm, presented the highest CO conversion and selectivity levels at temperatures below 160 °C. This result evidences (i) the improvement of the catalytic performances got by the structuration of the powder catalyst and (ii) the importance of the selection of the adequate thickness of the catalytic layer on the microreactor, which have not to exceed and optimal value. An adequate coating thickness allows minimizing the mass and heat transport limitations, thus resulting in the enhancement of the catalytic performance during the PROX reaction.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 271 (2015) 45-52 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.04.023

Enhancement of stability and photoactivity of TiO2 coatings on annular glass reactors to remove emerging pollutants from waters

Espino-Estevez, MR; Fernandez-Rodriguez, C; Gonzalez-Diaz, OM; Navio, JA; Fernandez-Hevia, D; Dona-Rodriguez, JM
TiO2 coatings of highly photoactive lab-made titania were prepared on the outer wall of the inner tube of a glass tubular reactor by dip-coating method. The effect of decreasing the size of the aggregates to improve adhesion and photoactivity of the coatings to degrade phenol, diclofenac and isoproturon was also investigated. Chemical disaggregation of the TiO2 particles resulted in a lower aggregate size, between 0.1 and 1 μm, than mechanical disaggregation, between 1 and 10 μm. The results of the adhesion tape test showed that either milling of aggregate material with a planetary mill or chemical stabilization of the particles were necessary to obtain TiO2 coatings on glass tube with acceptable quality to be used in water treatment applications. SEM images showed that coatings prepared after milling the TiO2 suspension were more homogeneous without surface aggregates. The degree of adhesion of the coatings after increasing the roughness of the support by abrasive blasting was also evaluated. Adhesion to the substrate was slightly lower when using the modified support. The photoactivity results showed that the coatings prepared after wet milling of catalyst during 30 min and after chemical disaggregation were more efficient in terms of degradation and mineralization when using phenol as model molecule. Subsequent studies with two emerging pollutants, diclofenac and isoproturon, also showed enhanced efficiency of these coatings. The reusability of the TiO2 coatings was also evaluated and a promising photocatalytic performance was observed with a very low variation of the decay rate after five consecutive usages.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 279 (2015) 488-497 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2015.05.038

Water splitting performance of Er3+-doped YVO4 prepared from a layered K3V5O14 precursor

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Erbium-doped YVO4 have been synthesized by means of a simple solution method having good photo activities under UV-like excitation for the water splitting half reactions. From the structural and morphological characterization it has been stated that the presence of Er3+ induces the promotion of luminescence. Moreover the incorporation of erbium clearly affects to the morphology YVO4 leading to 200 nm size well-defined spindle-like particles. The improved photocatalytic performance might be associated to a better electron–hole separation mechanism, probably due to the slight increase of band-gap value. The obtained photoactivities for H2 and O2 evolution reactions make this material a promising candidate for water splitting reactions.
Chemical Engineering Journal, 262 (2015) 29-33 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2014.09.073

Electrochemical activation of an oblique angle deposited Cu catalyst film for H-2 production

Gonzalez-Cobos, J; Rico, VJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Valverde, JL; de Lucas-Consuegra, A
A novel Cu catalyst film was prepared by oblique angle physical vapour deposition (OAD) on a K-βAl2O3 solid electrolyte (alkaline ionic conductor) for catalytic/electrocatalytic purposes. This technique allowed us to obtain a highly porous and electrically conductive Cu catalyst electrode which was tested in the partial oxidation of methanol (POM) reaction for H2 production and its catalytic activity was in situ enhanced via electrochemical promotion of catalysis (EPOC). The electropromotional effect was reversible and reproducible, and allowed us to increase both hydrogen and methyl formate production rates by almost three times under optimal promotion conditions (320 °C, 2.2 × 10−7 mol of K+ transferred). The observed promotional effect was attributed to a decrease in the Cu catalyst work function as a consequence of the controlled migration of electropositive K+ ions which favoured the chemisorption of electron acceptor molecules (O2) at the expense of the electron donor ones (CH3OH). Under the reaction conditions these ions formed some kinds of potassium surface compounds as demonstrated by SEM, EDX and XPS post-reaction characterization analyses. The obtained results demonstrate the interest of the used catalyst-electrode preparation technique for the electrochemical activation of non-noble metal catalyst films.
Catalysis Science & Technology, 5 (2015) 2203-2214 | DOI: 10.1039/c4cy01524j

Ultra-fast and energy-efficient sintering of ceramics by electric current concentration

Zapata-Solvas, E; Gomez-Garcia, D; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A; Todd, RI
Electric current activated/assisted sintering (ECAS) techniques, such as electrical discharge sintering (EDS) or resistive sintering (RS), have been intensively investigated for longer than 50 years. In this work, a novel system including an electrically insulated graphite die for Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) is described, which allows the sintering of any refractory ceramic material in less than 1 minute starting from room temperature with heating rates higher than 2000°C/min and an energy consumption up to 100 times lower than with SPS. The system alternates or combines direct resistive sintering (DRS) and indirect resistive sintering (IRS). Electrical insulation of the die has been achieved through the insertion of a film made of alumina fibers between the graphite die and the graphite punches, which are protected from the alumina fiber film by a graphite foil. This system localized the electric current directly through the sample (conductive materials) as in DRS and EDS, or through the thin graphite foil (non-conductive materials) as in IRS, and is the first system capable of being used under EDS or RS conditions independently combining current concentration/localization phenomena.
Scientific Reports, 5 (2015) art n. 8513 | DOI: 10.1038/srep08513

Adaptable Ultraviolet Reflecting Polymeric Multilayer Coatings of High Refractive Index Contrast

Smirnov, JRC; Ito, M; Calvo, ME; Lopez-Lopez, C; Jimenez-Solano, A; Galisteo-Lopez, JF; Zavala-Rivera, P; Tanaka, K; Sivaniah, E; Miguez, H
A synthetic route is demonstrated to build purely polymeric nanostructured multilayer coatings, adaptable to arbitrary surfaces, and capable of efficiently blocking by reflection a targeted and tunable ultraviolet (UV) range. Reflection properties are determined by optical interference between UV light beams reflected at the interfaces between polystyrene layers of different porosity and hence refractive index. As no dopant absorber intervenes in the shielding effect, polymer degradation effects are prevented. Alternated porosity results from the modulation of photochemical effects at the few tens of nanometers length scale, combined with the collective osmotic shock induced during the processing of the precursor diblock copolymer film. Experimental evidence of the application of this method to coat rough surfaces with smooth and conformal UV protecting films is provided.
Advanced Optical Materials, 3 (2015) 1633-1639 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201500209

Flexible Distributed Bragg Reflectors from Nanocolumnar Templates

Calvo, ME; Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Parra-Barranco, J; Barranco, A; Jimenez-Solano, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Miguez, H
A flexible distributed Bragg reflector is made by the infiltration of a nanocolumnar array with polydimethyl siloxane oligomers. The high optical reflectance displayed by the final material is a direct consequence of the high refractive index contrast of the columnar layers whereas the structural stability is due to the polymer properties.
Advanced Optical Materials, 3 (2015) 171-175 | DOI: 10.1002/adom.201400338

Dye sensitized solar cells as optically random photovoltaic media

Galvez, FE; Barnes, PRF; Halme, J; Miguez, H
In order to enhance optical absorption, light trapping by multiple scattering is commonly achieved in dye sensitized solar cells by adding particles of a different sort. Herein we propose a theoretical method to find the structural parameters (particle number density and size) that optimize the conversion efficiency of electrodes of different thicknesses containing spherical inclusions of diverse composition. Our work provides a theoretical framework in which the response of solar cells containing diffuse scattering particles can be rationalized. Optical simulations are performed by combining a Monte Carlo approach with Mie theory, in which the angular distribution of scattered light is accounted for. Several types of scattering centers, such as anatase, gold and silver particles, as well as cavities, are considered and their effect compared. Estimates of photovoltaic performance, insight into the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed enhancements, and guidelines to improve the cell design are provided. We discuss the results in terms of light transport in weakly disordered optical media and find that the observed variations between the optimum scattering configurations attained for different electrode thicknesses can be understood as the result of the randomization of the light propagation direction at different depths within the active layer. A primary conclusion of our study is that photovoltaic performance is optimised when the scattering properties of the film are adjusted so that the distance over which incident photons are randomized is comparable to the thickness of the film. This simple relationship could also be used as a design rule to attain the optimum optical design in other photovoltaic materials.
Energy & Environmental Science, 6 (2014) 1260-1266 | DOI: 10.1039/C3EE42587H

Active Site Considerations on the Photocatalytic H-2 Evolution Performance of Cu-Doped TiO2 Obtained by Different Doping Methods

Valero, JM; Obregon, S; Colon, G
A photocatalytic H2 evolution reaction was performed over copper doped TiO2. The influence of sulfate pretreatment over fresh TiO2 support and the Cu doping method has been evaluated. Wide structural and surface characterization of catalysts was carried out in order to establish a correlation between the effect of sulfuric acid treatment and the further Cu-TiO2photocatalytic properties. Notably a different copper dispersion and oxidation state is obtained by different metal decoration methods. From the structural and surface analysis of the catalysts we have stated that the occurrence of highly disperse and reducible Cu2+ species is directly related to the photocatalytic activity for the H2 production reaction. Highly active materials have been obtained from a chemical reduction method leading to 18 mmol·h–1·g–1for 3 mol % copper loading.
ACS Catalysis, 4 (2014) 3320-3329 | DOI: 10.1021/cs500865y

Low Temperature Production of Formaldehyde from Carbon Dioxide and Ethane by Plasma-Assisted Catalysis in a Ferroelectrically Moderated Dielectric Barrier Discharge Reactor

Gomez-Ramirez, A; Rico, VJ; Cotrino, J; Gonzalez-Elipe, A; Lambert, RM
Plasma-assisted catalysis of the reaction between CO2 and C2H6 in a single-pass, ferroelectrically moderated dielectric barrier discharge reactor has been studied at near ambient temperature as a function of physicochemical and electrical reaction variables. The presence of small amounts of a vanadia/alumina catalyst dispersed on the BaTiO3 ferroelectric markedly enhanced the production of formaldehyde, the focus of this work. A maximum HCOH selectivity of 11.4% (defined with respect to the number of ethane carbon atoms consumed) at 100% ethane conversion was achieved, the other products being CO, H2O, H2, CH4 and a small amount of C3H8. N2O was also an effective partial oxidant (HCOH selectivity 8.9%) whereas use of O2 led to complete combustion, behavior that may be rationalized in terms of the electron impact excitation cross sections of the three oxidants. Control experiments with the coproducts CH4 and C3H8 showed that these species were not intermediates in HCOH formation from C2H6. Analysis of reactor performance as a function of discharge characteristics revealed that formaldehyde formation was strongly favored at low frequencies where the zero-current fraction of the duty cycle was greatest, the implication being that plasma processes also acted to destroy previously formed products. A tentative reaction mechanism is proposed that accounts for the broad features of formaldehyde production.
ACS Catalysis, 4 (2014) 402-408 | DOI: 10.1021/cs4008528

Biomechanical properties of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit cuticle during development are modulated by changes in the relative amounts of its components

Espana, L; Heredia-Guerrero, JA; Segado, P; Benitez, JJ; Heredia, A; Dominguez, E
Keywords: attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR);biomechanics;cuticle;cutin;flavonoids;tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit Summary - In this study, growth-dependent changes in the mechanical properties of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cuticle during fruit development were investigated in two cultivars with different patterns of cuticle growth and accumulation. - The mechanical properties were determined in uniaxial tensile tests using strips of isolated cuticles. Changes in the functional groups of the cuticle chemical components were analysed by attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR). - The early stages of fruit growth are characterized by an elastic cuticle, and viscoelastic behaviour only appeared at the beginning of cell enlargement. Changes in the cutin:polysaccharide ratio during development affected the strength required to achieve viscoelastic deformation. The increase in stiffness and decrease in extensibility during ripening, related to flavonoid accumulation, were accompanied by an increase in cutin depolymerization as a result of a reduction in the overall number of ester bonds. - Quantitative changes in cuticle components influence the elastic/viscoelastic behaviour of the cuticle. The cutin:polysaccharide ratio modulates the stress required to permanently deform the cuticle and allow cell enlargement. Flavonoids stiffen the elastic phase and reduce permanent viscoelastic deformation. Ripening is accompanied by a chemical cleavage of cutin ester bonds. An infrared (IR) band related to phenolic accumulation can be used to monitor changes in the cutin esterification index.
New Phytologist, 202 (3) (2014) 790-802 | DOI: 10.1111/nph.12727

Production of hydrogen by water photo-splitting over commercial and synthesised Au/TiO2 catalysts

Mendez, JAO; Lopez, CR; Melian, EP; Diaz, OG; Rodriguez, JMD; Hevia, DF; Macias, M
H2 production from methanol/water photo-splitting was compared using various commercial photocatalysts (Evonik P25 (P25), Hombikat UV-100 (HB) and Kronos vlp7000 (KR)) and others synthesised with a sol–gel-hydrothermal (HT) process and a sol–gel method followed by calcination (SG400 and SG750). All photocatalysts had been surface modified with Au at different concentrations, from 0.2 to 6.0 wt.%, using the photodeposition method. A complete characterisation study of the different photocatalysts was performed (BET, XRD, TEM, SEM-EDX, FTIR, UV–vis Reflectance Diffuse Spectra and aggregate size). The experiments were conducted for 3.5 h using 1 g L−1 of photocatalyst with methanol (25 vol.%) as sacrificial agent. In addition to H2 generation, production of the main intermediates, formaldehyde and formic acid, and of CO2 was also evaluated. The commercial photocatalyst KR at 0.8 wt.% Au had the highest H2 production of all the photocatalysts studied with 1542.9 μmol h−1. Of the photocatalysts synthesised by our group, SG750 at Au loading of 2.0 wt.% gave the highest H2 production of 723.1 μmol h−1. The SG750 photocatalyst at Au loading of 2.0 wt.% also had the highest H2 production yield per unit of surface area at 45.5 μmol g h−1 m−2.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 147 (2014) 439-452 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.09.029

Improved H2 production of Pt-TiO2/g-C3N4-MnOx composites by an efficient handling of photogenerated charge pairs

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Pt-TiO2/g-C3N4-MnOx hybrid structures are synthesized by means of a simple impregnation method of Pt-TiO2 and g-C3N4-MnOx. From the wide structural and surface characterization we have stated that TiO2/g-C3N4 composites are formed by an effective covering of g-C3N4 by TiO2. The modification of composite by Pt and/or MnOx leads to improved photoactivities for phenol degradation reaction. Moreover, enhanced photoactivities have been obtained for composites systems for H2 evolution reaction. The notably photocatalytic performance obtained was related with the efficient separation of charge pairs in this hybrid heterostructure.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 144 (2014) 775-782 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.07.034

Correlation study between photo-degradation and surface adsorption properties of phenol and methyl orange on TiO2 Vs platinum-supported TiO2

Murcia, JJ; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA; Arana, J; Dona-Rodriguez, JM
Adsorption of phenol and methyl orange on the surface of TiO2 and Pt–TiO2 photocatalysts was investigated by FT-IR spectroscopy. It was found that platinum plays an important role in the adsorption properties of the studied substrates on TiO2. Platinum deposits modified the phenol-photocatalyst interaction providing new adsorption sites on TiO2 surface. On Pt–TiO2 photocatalysts, phenol mainly interacts via formation of adsorbed phenolates species. It was also found that the adsorption of methyl orange on titania and Pt–TiO2 photocatalysts occurs via interaction of the azo group with surface Ti4+. Pt photodeposition significantly increases the TiO2 photoreactivity in phenol and methyl orange photo-degradation; however, this increase depends on the properties of the Pt deposits. Moreover, it was observed that platinum content is the main factor determining the substrate-photocatalyst interaction and therefore the Pt–TiO2 photocatalytic performance.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 150-151 (2014) 107-115 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.12.010

Effect of gold on a NiLaO3 perovskite catalyst for methane steam reforming

Palma, S; Bobadilla, LF; Corrales, A; Ivanova, S; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
The effect of gold addition to a supported Ni SRM catalyst has been studied in this work in order to determine the influence of gold on both the amount and type of carbon species formed during the reaction. The structure of the support, a mixed La–Al perovskite, determines the catalyst reducibility and Ni particle size. Gold addition affects the metal particle size increasing metal dispersion on increasing the gold content. Therefore, although gold blocks step Ni sites, the more active sites for Csingle bondH activation, and increases electron density on nickel, the higher dispersion results in an apparently higher activity upon gold addition. Moreover, gold addition increases the catalyst stability by decreasing the rate of growth of carbon nanotubes.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 144 (2014) 846-854 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.07.055

In situ XAS study of an improved natural phosphate catalyst for hydrogen production by reforming of methane

Abba, MO; Gonzalez-DelaCruz, VM; Colon, G; Sebti, S; Caballero, A
Some nickel catalysts supported on natural phosphate (NP) have been tested for the dry methane reforming reaction. Although the original impregnated 15%Ni/NP catalyst has no activity at all, the modification of the support by mechano-chemical and/or acid treatment strongly improved the catalytic performance, yielding a series of very active and stable catalysts. The chemical and physical characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and other techniques have shown that these treatments mainly modify the interaction between the nickel phase and the support surface. The nickel ions occupy calcium position in the surface of the phosphate phase, which stabilizes and improves the dispersion of nickel species. The final reduced catalysts present a much better dispersed metallic phase interacting with the NP surface, which has been identified as responsible for the observed outstanding catalytic performances.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 150-151 (2014) 459-465 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.12.031

Could an efficient WGS catalyst be useful in the CO-PrOx reaction?

Reina, TR; Papadopoulou, E; Palma, S; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Ioannides, T; Odriozola, JA
This work presents an evaluation of a high performance series of water gas shift (WGS) catalysts in the preferential CO oxidation reaction (PrOx) in order to examine the applicability of the same catalyst for both processes as a first step for coupling both reactions in a single process. Gold based catalysts are applied in an extensive study of the CO-PrOx reaction parameters, such as λ, WHSV, CO concentration and [H2O]/[CO2] ratio in order to obtain the best activity/selectivity balance. CO and H2 oxidation reactions were treated separately in order to establish the degree of CO/H2 oxidation competition. Additionally the catalysts behavior in the CO-PrOx parallel reactions such a WGS and RWGS have been also carried out to analyze their effect on product composition.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 150-151 (2014) 554-563 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.01.001

Excellent photocatalytic activity of Yb3+, Er3+ co-doped BiVO4 photocatalyst

Obregon, S.; Colon, G.
Ytterbium-Erbium co-doped BiVO4 have been synthesized by means of a surfactant free hydrothermal method having good photoactivities under sun-like excitation for the degradation of Methylene Blue and O2 evolution reactions. From the structural and morphological characterization it has been stated that the presence of Yb3+ and Er3+ induces the stabilization of the tetragonal phase probably due to its substitutional incorporation in the BiVO4 lattice. The occurrence of the Yb3+,Er3+ co-doped monoclinic-tetragonal BiVO4 heterostructure induces the higher photocatalytic activities. The best photocatalytic performance was attained for the sample with 1:4 Er3+:Yb3+ ratio. The observed NIR photoactivity clearly denotes the occurrence of an up-conversion mechanism involved in the overall photocatalytic process.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 152-153 (2014) 328-334 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.01.054

Heterostructured Er3+ doped BiVO4 with exceptional photocatalytic performance by cooperative electronic and luminescence sensitization mechanism

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Er-BiVO4 has been synthesized by means of mw-assisted hydrothermal method having good photoactivity under sun-like excitation. It is stated that the precursor addition sequence plays a critical role which determine the further structural feature of BiVO4. From the structural and morphological characterization, it can be demonstrated that the presence of Er3+ would induce the stabilization of the tetragonal phase probably due to the formation of tetragonal-ErVO4 seeds previous to BiVO4 formation. The best photocatalytic performance is attained for the sample with 0.75 at% Er3+ content. At this dopant loading a mixture of tetragonal and monoclinic phase (70% tetragonal) is obtained. The dramatic increase in the photocatalytic activity for 0.75 at% Er-BiVO4 is related to the occurrence of such heterostructure. For this system, the MB degradation rate constant appears drastically higher as bare m-BiVO4. Furthermore, activities of photocatalysts for visible-light-driven O2 evolution have been evaluated, demonstrating that the photocatalytic activity of this Er-doped system (O2 evolution rate, 1014 μmol g−1 h−1) is 20 times as that of undoped m-BiVO4 (O2 evolution rate, 54 μmol g−1 h−1). From the obtained results, the cooperative conjunction of electronic and luminescence mechanism involved in the reaction is proposed to be the origin of the enhanced photocatalytic efficiencies of such systems.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 158-159 (2014) 242-249 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.04.029

Supported Co catalysts prepared as thin films by magnetron sputtering for sodium borohydride and ammonia borane hydrolysis

Paladini, M; Arzac, GM; Godinho, V; De Haro, MCJ; Fernandez, A
Supported Co catalysts were prepared for sodium borohydride and ammonia borane hydrolysis by magnetron sputtering for the first time under different conditions. Ni foam was selected as support. Deposition conditions (time, pressure, and power) were varied to improve catalytic activity. A decrease in deposition power from 200 to 50 W, leads to a decrease in crystallite and column size and a higher activity of catalysts. The increase in deposition pressure from 1.5 × 10−2 to 4.5 × 10−2 mbar produces same effect but in this case the enhancement in activity is higher because amorphous materials were obtained. The highest activity for SB hydrolysis was 2650 ml min−1 gcat−1 for the 50 W Co 4.5 (4 h) sample (Ea = 60 ± 2 kJ mol−1). For AB hydrolysis activity for the 50 W Co 3.2 (4 h) sample was similar. Durability of the thin films was tested for both reactions upon cycling (14 cycles). Diluted acid washing was effective to recover the activity for sodium borohydride reaction but not for ammonia borane hydrolysis. The strong Co–NH3 interactions explain the non-efficiency of the acid washing.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 158-159 (2014) 400-409 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2014.04.047

Tailor-made directional emission in nanoimprinted plasmonic-based light-emitting devices

Lozano, G; Grzela, G; Verschuuren, MA; Ramezani, M; Rivas, JG
We demonstrate an enhanced and tailor-made directional emission of light-emitting devices using nanoimprinted hexagonal arrays of aluminum nanoparticles. Fourier microscopy reveals that the, luminescence of the device is not only determined by the material properties of the organic dye molecules but is also strongly influenced by the coherent scattering resulting from periodically arranged metal nanoparticles. Emitters can couple to lattice-induced hybrid plasmonic-photonic modes sustained by plasmonic arrays. Such modes enhance the spatial coherence of an emitting layer, allowing the efficient beaming of the emission along narrow angular and spectral ranges. We show that tailoring the separation of the nanoparticles in the array yields an accurate angular distribution of the emission. This combination of large-area metal nanostructures fabricated by nanoimprint lithography and light-emitting devices is beneficial for the design and optimization of solid-state lighting systems.
Nanoscale, 6 (2014) 9223-9229 | DOI: 10.1039/c4nr01391c

Shape-defined nanodimers by tailored heterometallic epitaxy

Garcia-Negrete, Carlos A; Rojas, Teresa C; Knappett, Benjamin R; Jefferson, David A; Wheatley, Andrew E H; Fernandez, Asuncion
The systematic construction of heterogeneous nanoparticles composed of two distinct metal domains (Au and Pt) and exhibiting a broad range of morphologically defined shapes is reported. It is demonstrated that careful Au overgrowth on Pt nanocrystal seeds with shapes mainly corresponding to cubeoctahedra, octahedra and octapods can lead to heterometallic systems whose intrinsic structures result from specific epitaxial relationships such as {111} + {111}, {200} + {200} and {220} + {220}. Comprehensive analysis shows also that nanoparticles grown from octahedral seeds can be seen as comprising of four Au tetrahedral subunits and one Pt octahedral unit in a cyclic arrangement that is similar to the corresponding one in decahedral gold nanoparticles. However, in the present case, the multi-component system is characterized by a broken five-fold rotational symmetry about the [011] axis. This set of bimetallic dimers could provide new platforms for fuel cell catalysts and plasmonic devices.
Nanoscale, 6 (2014) 11090-11097 | DOI: 10.1039/C4NR01815J

Pt vs. Au in water-gas shift reaction

Castano, MG; Reina, TR; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This work presents a comparison of the gold- and platinum-based catalysts behavior in the water–gas shift (WGS) reaction. The influence of the support, e.g., its composition and electronic properties, studied in detail by means of UV–Vis spectroscopy, of the metal nature and dispersion and of the stream composition has been evaluated. The catalytic performance of the samples is directly correlated with the electronic properties modification as a function of metal and/or support. Both metals present high activity in the selected reaction although in a different operation temperature window.
Journal of Catalysis, 314 (2014) 1-9 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2014.03.014

Direct evidence of Lowenstein's rule violation in swelling high-charge micas

Pavon, E; Osuna, FJ; Alba, MD; Delevoye, L
The structure of high-charged micas, Na-n-micas (n = 2 and 4), a family of synthetic silicates with a wide range of applications, was investigated through the use of 17O solid-state NMR at natural abundance in order to preserve quantitative spectral information. The use of a very high-field and highly sensitive probehead, together with 17O NMR literature data allowed for the detection of an isolated signal at 26 ppm, assigned partially to AlOAl, as evidence of the violation of Lowenstein's rule for Na-4-mica.
Chemical Communications, 53 (2014) 6984-6986 | DOI: 10.1039/C4CC01632G

Bending Induced Self-Organized Switchable Gratings on Polymeric Substrates

Parra-Barranco, J; Oliva-Ramirez, M; Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Alcaire, M; Macias-Montero, M; Borras, A; Frutos, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Barranco, A
We present a straightforward procedure of self-surface patterning with potential applications as large area gratings, invisible labeling, optomechanical transducers, or smart windows. The methodology is based in the formation of parallel micrometric crack patterns when polydimethylsiloxane foils coated with tilted nanocolumnar SiO2 thin films are manually bent. The SiO2 thin films are grown by glancing angle deposition at room temperature. The results indicate that crack spacing is controlled by the film nanostructure independently of the film thickness and bending curvature. They also show that the in-plane microstructural anisotropy of the SiO2 films due to column association perpendicular to the growth direction determines the anisotropic formation of parallel cracks along two main axes. These self-organized patterned foils are completely transparent and work as customized reversible diffraction gratings under mechanical activation.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6 (2014) 11924-11931 | DOI: 10.1021/am5037687

Ceramic Barrier Layers for Flexible Thin Film Solar Cells on Metallic Substrates: A Laboratory Scale Study for Process Optimization and Barrier Layer Properties

Delgado-Sanchez, JM; Guilera, N; Francesch, L; Alba, MD; Lopez, L; Sanchez, E
Flexible thin film solar cells are an alternative to both utility-scale and building integrated photovoltaic installations. The fabrication of these devices over electrically conducting low-cost foils requires the deposition of dielectric barrier layers to flatten the substrate surface, provide electrical isolation between the substrate and the device, and avoid the diffusion of metal impurities during the relatively high temperatures required to deposit the rest of the solar cell device layers. The typical roughness of low-cost stainless-steel foils is in the hundred-nanometer range, which is comparable or larger than the thin film layers comprising the device and this may result in electrical shunts that decrease solar cell performance. This manuscript assesses the properties of different single-layer and bilayer structures containing ceramics inks formulations based on Al2O3, AlN, or Si3N4 nanoparticles and deposited over stainless-steel foils using a rotogravure printing process. The best control of the substrate roughness was achieved for bilayers of Al2O3 or AlN with mixed particle size, which reduced the roughness and prevented the diffusion of metals impurities but AlN bilayers exhibited as well the best electrical insulation properties.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 6 (2014) 18543-18549 | DOI: 10.1021/am504923z

A General Perspective of the Characterization and Quantification of Nanoparticles: Imaging, Spectroscopic, and Separation Techniques

Lapresta-Fernandez, A; Salinas-Castillo, A; de la Llana, SA; Costa-Fernandez, JM; Dominguez-Meister, S; Cecchini, R; Capitan-Vallvey, LF; Moreno-Bondi, MC; Marco, MP; Sanchez-Lopez, JC; Anderson, IS
This article gives an overview of the different techniques used to identify, characterize, and quantify engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). The state-of-the-art of the field is summarized, and the different characterization techniques have been grouped according to the information they can provide. In addition, some selected applications are highlighted for each technique. The classification of the techniques has been carried out according to the main physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles such as morphology, size, polydispersity characteristics, structural information, and elemental composition. Microscopy techniques including optical, electron and X-ray microscopy, and separation techniques with and without hyphenated detection systems are discussed. For each of these groups, a brief description of the techniques, specific features, and concepts, as well as several examples, are described.
Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 39 (2014) 423-458 | DOI: 10.1080/10408436.2014.899890

Chemical and electrical properties of LSM cathodes prepared by mechanosynthesis

Moriche, R.; Marrero-López, D.; Gotor, F.J.; Sayagués, M.J.
Mechanosynthesis of La1−xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1) was carried out at room temperature from stoichiometric mixtures of La2O3, Mn2O3 and SrO, obtaining monophasic powders with the perovskite structure. Physical properties of these materials and their chemical compatibility with the electrolyte yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), which depend strongly on the La/Sr ratio, were evaluated to corroborate availability to be implemented as cathode material in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Electrical conductivity values in air ranged between 100 and 400 S cm−1 in the temperature range of 25–850 °C. Samples presented low reactivity with YSZ in the working temperature range (600–1000 °C) maintaining the grain size small enough to preserve the catalytic activity for oxygen reduction.
Journal of Power Sources, 252 (2014) 43-50 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.11.093

Impregnation of carbon black for the examination of colloids using TEM

Gontard, LC; Knappett, BR; Wheatley, AEH; Chang, SLY; Fernandez, A
Nanoparticles are frequently synthesised as colloids, dispersed in solvents such as water, hexane or ethanol. For their characterisation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a drop of colloid is typically deposited on a carbon support and the solvent allowed to evaporate. However, this method of supporting the nanoparticles reduces the visibility of fine atomic details, particularly for carbonaceous species, due to interference from the 2-dimensional carbon support at most viewing angles. We propose here the impregnation of a 3 dimensional carbon black matrix that has been previously deposited on a carbon film as an alternative means of supporting colloidal nanoparticles, and show examples of the application of this method to advanced TEM techniques in the analysis of monometallic, core@shell and hybrid nanoparticles with carbon-based shells. Nanoparticles represent one of the most studied structures in nanotechnology and nanoscience because of the wide range of applications arising from their unique optical, physical and chemical properties [1]. Often they have core@shell structures, or are coated with organic molecules. Nanoparticle functionality is largely affected by the specific configuration of the outer surface atoms. For example, in heterogeneous catalysis activity and selectivity are mostly determined by the type of atomic defects present at the surface of metallic nanoparticles, and in the field of biomedicine the surface coating of hybrid (inorganic core@organic shell) nanoparticles regulates their stability, solubility and targeting. Nanoparticles are frequently synthesised using solution techniques that yield colloids, i.e., a solid–liquid mixture containing solid particles that are dispersed to various degrees in a liquid medium; most frequently water, ethanol or hexane. Colloid characterisation generally employs a variety of techniques to establish understanding and control over nanoparticle synthesis and properties. Electron microscopy in transmission mode (TEM) and in scanning transmission mode (STEM) are widely used for particle characterisation, and advances in these techniques mean that it is now routinely possible to resolve single atoms at the surfaces of nanoparticles using aberration-corrected microscopes, to elucidate the three-dimensional shapes of nanoparticles using electron tomography, and to enhance the contrast in very low density materials (e.g., carbonaceous materials) using electron holography [2] and [3]. However, the significant potential of these (S)TEM techniques is ultimately limited by the sample and the techniques available for sample preparation. Typically, examination by (S)TEM requires that a nanoparticulate sample be prepared by depositing a drop of colloid on a thin, electron-transparent support. It is usual that an amorphous carbon film, silicon nitride film or graphene layers deposited on a copper grid constitute the support [4]. Crucially, these sample preparation techniques suffer from the major limitation that the contrast from the support often shadows atomic details at the particle surface. Moreover, it has been established that the thinnest supports can degrade under electron-beam irradiation, affecting particle stability [5], and also that hydrocarbon contamination can be an issue [6]. The most widely used commercially available TEM support is holey carbon, which comprises of a perforated carbon thin film. In this case, sample preparation aims to locate at least some of the nanoparticles of interest at the edges of the perforations. However, the concave nature of the holes means that solvent contaminants tend to accumulate preferentially at these sites. Moreover, if the TEM sample holder is tilted a particle attached to the edge of a hole is very likely to be shadowed by the carbon film. Taken together, these drawbacks significantly limit the application of techniques such as electron tomography [6]. We propose here a method of circumventing some of these fundamental problems by developing a technique for mounting nanoparticulate samples using a carbon matrix that is inspired by the way samples used in electrocatalysis are prepared [7]. Fig. 1 shows an image of a typical Pt-based electrocatalyst supported on carbon black as used in proton-electron membrane fuels cells, and which consists of Pt nanoparticles formed by calcination of a carbon black impregnated with a solution of salt precursor. Carbon black is a low-grade form of graphite, which is composed of nanocrystallites and no long-range order [8]. In Fig. 1 the carbon black is Vulcan XC-72R, which is widely used as a catalyst support in fuel cells because it provides high electrical conductivity, good reactant gas access, adequate water handling and good corrosion resistance, whilst allowing high dispersion of the particles. In electrocatalyst samples it is common to find particles, like the 5 nm Pt particle shown in Fig. 1, attached strongly to the surface of the support and viewed edge-on against a vacuum so as to provide optimal conditions for high-resolution TEM (HRTEM). Fig. 1B is a quantitative phase image of a Pt particle obtained from a defocus series of 20 images at intervals of 5 nm acquired in a FEGTEM JEOL 2020 at 200 kV with spherical aberration of −30 μm and applying the exit-wave restoration technique [2]. The contrast between details of the particle finestructure is very high compared to conventional HRTEM images, and details such as the presence of monoatomic carbon ribbons surrounding the particle can be seen.
Carbon, 76 (2014) 464-468 | DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2014.05.006

Effect of the type of acid used in the synthesis of titania–silica mixed oxides on their photocatalytic properties

Llano, B; Hidalgo, MC; Rios, LA; Navio, JA
TiO2–SiO2 mixed oxides were synthesized by the sol–gel technique using three different acids, i.e., acetic, sulfuric, or chlorhydric acid. Their photocatalytic behavior was evaluated on the phenol oxidation in liquid phase and correlated with the characterization results. It was found that the kind of acid used during the preparation strongly influences the phase composition and stability of the TiO2 phases incorporated in the silica structure as well as the photocatalytic activity. In all cases, silica introduced a dispersive effect that stabilized the TiO2 crystalline phases upon calcination at 700 °C. SO42− and CH3COO− ions stabilized the anatase phase at high calcination temperatures (700 °C) leading to samples with the highest photoactivities. Cl− ions induced the formation of traces of rutile and brookite resulting in a lower photoactivity. The highest photoactivity was achieved with the catalyst synthesized with acetic acid and calcined at 700 °C (TS1-700-ace). The photocatalytic performance of this material was even better than that obtained with the commercial catalyst Degussa P-25.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 150-151 (2014) 389-395 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.12.039

Nanosilica supported CaO: A regenerable and mechanically hard CO2 sorbent at Ca-looping conditions

Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Valverde, JM
This work presents a CO2 sorbent that may be synthesized from low-cost and widely available materials following a simple method basically consisting of impregnation of a nanostructured silica support with a saturated solution of calcium nitrate. In a first impregnation stage, the use of a stoichiometric CaO/SiO2 ratio serves to produce a calcium silicate matrix after calcination. This calcium silicate matrix acts as a thermally stable and mechanically hard support for CaO deposited on it by further impregnation. The CaO-impregnated sorbent exhibits a stable CaO conversion at Ca-looping conditions whose value depends on the CaO wt% deposited on the calcium silicate matrix, which can be increased by successive reimpregnations. A 10 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent reaches a stable conversion above 0.6 whereas the stable conversion of a 30 wt% CaO impregnated sorbent is around 0.3, which is much larger than the residual conversion of CaO derived from natural limestone (between 0.07 and 0.08). Moreover, particle size distribution measurements of samples predispersed in a liquid and subjected to high energy ultrasonic waves indicate that the CaO-impregnated sorbent has a relatively high mechanical strength as compared to limestone derived CaO.
Applied Energy, 118 (2014) 92-99 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.12.024

Calcium-looping for post-combustion CO2 capture. On the adverse effect of sorbent regeneration under CO2

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
The multicyclic carbonation/calcination (c/c) of CaO solid particles at high temperature is at the basis of the recently emerged Calcium-looping (CaL) technology, which has been shown to be potentially suitable for achieving high and sustainable post-combustion CO2 capture efficiency. Despite the success of pilot plant projects at the MWth scale, a matter of concern for scaling-up the CaL technology to a commercial level (to the GWth scale) is that the CaO carbonation reactivity can be recovered only partially when the sorbent is regenerated by calcination at high temperatures (around 950 °C) as required by the CO2 high concentration in the calciner. In order to reactivate the sorbent, a novel CaL concept has been proposed wherein a recarbonator reactor operated at high temperature/high CO2 concentration leads to further carbonation of the solids before entering into the calciner for regeneration. Multicyclic thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests demonstrate the feasibility of recarbonation to reactivate the sorbent regenerated at high calcination temperatures yet at unrealistically low CO2 partial pressure mainly because of technical limitations concerning low heating/cooling rates. We report results from multicyclic c/c and carbonation/recarbonation/calcination (c/r/c) TGA tests at high heating/coling rates and in which the sorbent is regenerated in a dry atmosphere at high CO2 partial pressure. It is shown that at these conditions there is a drastic drop of CaO conversion to a very small residual value in just a few cycles. Moreover, the introduction of a recarbonation stage has actually an adverse effect. Arguably, CaCO3 decomposition in a CO2 rich atmosphere is ruled by CO2 dynamic adsorption/desorption in reactive CaO (1 1 1) surfaces as suggested by theoretical studies, which would preclude the growth of the regenerated CaO crystal structure along these reactive surfaces, and this effect would be intensified by recarbonation. Nevertheless, the presence of H2O in the calciner, which is also adsorbed/desorbed dynamically in CaO reactive planes, would shield CO2 adsorption/desorption thus mitigating the deeply detrimental effect of CO2 on the carbonation reactivity of the regenerated CaO structure. Oxy-combustion, which produces a significant amount of H2O, is currently used in pilot-scale plants to raise the temperature in the calciner. Auxiliary techniques are being explored to help heating the partially carbonated solids since oxyxombustion represents an important penalty to the CaL technology. Our study suggests that steam injection would be necessary in a dry calciner environment to avoid a sharp loss of CaO conversion if the sorbent is regenerated at high CO2 partial pressure.
Applied Energy, 126 (2014) 161-171 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.081

Role of precalcination and regeneration conditions on postcombustion CO2 capture in the Ca-looping technology

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
The Ca-looping (CaL) technology is already recognized as a potentially viable method to capture CO2 from postcombustion gas in coal fired power plants. In this process, CO2 is chemisorbed by CaO solid particles derived from precalcination of cheap and widely available natural limestone. The partially carbonated solids are regenerated by calcination under high CO2 concentration. Novel CaL concepts are proposed to further improve the efficiency of the technology such as the introduction of a recarbonation reactor in between the carbonation and calcination stages to mitigate the progressive deactivation of the regenerated CaO. Process simulations aimed at retrieving optimum design parameters and operating conditions to scale-up the technology yield results critically dependent on the multicyclic sorbent performance. Nevertheless, technical limitations usually preclude lab-scale tests from mimicking realistic CaL conditions necessarily involving high CO2 concentration for sorbent regeneration and quick transitions between carbonation and calcination. In this work, a lab-scale experimental analysis is reported on the CaO multicyclic conversion at CaL conditions closely resembling those to be expected in practice. The results presented evidence a relevant role of precalcination conditions. Precalcination in air leads to a strongly adverse effect on the activity of the sorbent regenerated under high CO2 concentration, which is further hindered if a recarbonation stage is introduced. On the other hand, sorbent deactivation is mitigated if precalcination is carried out at conditions similar to those used for sorbent regeneration. In this case, recarbonation helps lessening the loss of multicyclic conversion, which is further enhanced by the synergistic combination with heat pretreatment. Moreover, the present study shows that the kinetics of carbonation is strongly dependent on precalcination and regeneration conditions. The diffusion controlled carbonation phase and recarbonation are intensified if the sorbent is precalcined and regenerated under high CO2 concentration whereas the reaction controlled carbonation phase is notably hampered.
Applied Energy, 136 (2014) 347-356 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.09.052

Improved O-2 evolution from a water splitting reaction over Er3+ and Y3+ co-doped tetragonal BiVO4

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Erbium–yttrium co-doped BiVO4 with a tetragonal structure is synthesized by means of a surfactant free hydrothermal method. The studied photocatalyst shows good photoactivity under sun-like excitation for the degradation of methylene blue (MB) and for O2 evolution. From structural and morphological characterization, it has been stated that the presence of lanthanides induces the stabilization of the tetragonal phase. This is probably due to the substitutional occupation that occurs in the BiVO4 lattice. The photocatalytic performance under visible-NIR radiation clearly evidences the occurrence of an up-conversion process involved in the overall photo-electronic mechanism. The tetragonal phase Er0.0075,Y0.03–Bi0.9625VO4 system gives the highest O2 evolution rate (425 μmol g−1 h−1) under sun-like excitation, being 8 times higher than that attained for m-BiVO4 (53 μmol g−1 h−1).
Catalysis Science & Technology, 4 (2014) 2042-2050 | DOI: 10.1039/C4CY00050A

Relevant Influence of Limestone Crystallinity on CO2 Capture in The Ca-Looping Technology at Realistic Calcination Conditions

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA
We analyze the role of limestone crystallinity on its CO2 capture performance when subjected to carbonation/calcination cycles at conditions mimicking the Ca-looping (CaL) technology for postcombustion CO2 capture. The behavior of raw and pretreated limestones (milled and thermally annealed) is investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests under realistic sorbent regeneration conditions, which necessarily involve high CO2 partial pressure in the calciner and quick heating rates. The pretreatments applied lead to contrasting effects on the solid crystal structure and, therefore, on its resistance to solid-state diffusion. Our results show that decarbonation at high CO2 partial pressure is notably promoted by decreasing solid crystallinity. CaO regeneration is fully achieved under high CO2 partial pressure at 900 °C in short residence times for the milled limestone whereas complete regeneration for raw limestone requires a minimum calcination temperature of about 950 °C. Such a reduction of the calcination temperature and the consequent mitigation of multicyclic capture capacity decay would serve to enhance the efficiency of the CaL technology. On the other hand, the results of our study suggest that the use of highly crystalline limestones would be detrimental since excessively high calcination temperatures should be required to attain full decarbonation at realistic conditions.
Environmental Science & Technology, 48 (2014) 9882-9889 | DOI: 10.1021/es5014505

Role of crystal structure on CO2 capture by limestone derived CaO subjected to carbonation/recarbonation/calcination cycles at Ca-looping conditions

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Quintanilla, MAS; Perez-Vaquero, J
Large scale pilot plants are currently demonstrating the feasibility of the Calcium-looping (CaL) technology built on the multicyclic calcination/carbonation of natural limestone for post-combustion and precombustion CO2 capture. Yet, limestone derived CaO exhibits a drop of conversion when subjected to multiple carbonation/calcination cycles, which lessens the efficiency of the technology. In this paper we analyze a novel CaL concept recently proposed to mitigate this drawback based on the introduction of an intermediate stage wherein carbonation is intensified at high temperature and high CO2 partial pressure. It is shown that carbonation in this stage is mainly driven by solid-state diffusion, which is determined by the solid's crystal structure. Accordingly, a reduction of crystallinity by ball milling, which favors diffusion, serves to promote recarbonation. Conversely, thermal annealing, which enhances crystallinity, hinders recarbonation. An initial fast phase has been identified in the recarbonation stage along which the rate of carbonation is also a function of the crystal structure indicating a relevant role of surface diffusion. This is consistent with a recently proposed mechanism for nucleation of CaCO3 on the CaO surface in islands with a critical size determined by surface diffusion. A further issue analyzed has been the effects of pretreatment and cycling on the mechanical strength of the material, whose fragility hampers the CaL process efficiency. Particle size distribution of samples dispersed in a liquid and subjected to high energy ultrasonic irradiation indicate that milling promotes friability whereas thermal annealing enhances the resistance of the particles to fragmentation even though pretreatment effects become blurred after cycling. Our study demonstrates that recarbonation conditions and crystal-structure controlled diffusion are important parameters to be considered in order to assess the efficiency of CO2 capture in the novel CaL concept.
Applied Energy, 125 (2014) 264-275 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.03.065

Hallmarks of mechanochemistry: from nanoparticles to technology

Balaz, P; Achimovicova, M; Balaz, M; Billik, P; Cherkezova-Zheleva, Z; Criado, JM; Delogu, F; Dutkova, E; Gaffet, E; Gotor, FJ; Kumar, R; Mitov, I; Rojac, T; Senna, M; Streletskii, A; Wieczorek-Ciurowa, K
The aim of this review article on recent developments of mechanochemistry (nowadays established as a part of chemistry) is to provide a comprehensive overview of advances achieved in the field of atomistic processes, phase transformations, simple and multicomponent nanosystems and peculiarities of mechanochemical reactions. Industrial aspects with successful penetration into fields like materials engineering, heterogeneous catalysis and extractive metallurgy are also reviewed. The hallmarks of mechanochemistry include influencing reactivity of solids by the presence of solid-state defects, interphases and relaxation phenomena, enabling processes to take place under non-equilibrium conditions, creating a well-crystallized core of nanoparticles with disordered near-surface shell regions and performing simple dry time-convenient one-step syntheses. Underlying these hallmarks are technological consequences like preparing new nanomaterials with the desired properties or producing these materials in a reproducible way with high yield and under simple and easy operating conditions. The last but not least hallmark is enabling work under environmentally friendly and essentially waste-free conditions (822 references).
Chemical Society Reviews, 42 (2013) 7571-7637 | DOI: 10.1039/C3CS35468G

Tuning Dichroic Plasmon Resonance Modes of Gold Nanoparticles in Optical Thin Films

Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Parra-Barranco, J; Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Ferrer, J; Garcia-Gutierrez, MC; Barranco, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
A simple method is presented to tune the gold surface plasmon resonance (SPR) modes by growing anisotropic nanoparticles into transparent SiO2 thin films prepared by glancing angle deposition. In this type of composite film, the anisotropy of the gold nanoparticles, proved by gracing incidence small angle X-ray scattering, is determined by the tilted nanocolumnar structure of the SiO2 host and yields a strong film dichroism evidenced by a change from an intense colored to a nearly transparent aspect depending on light polarization and/or sample orientation. The formation in these films of lithographic non-dichroic SPR patterns by nanosecond laser writing demonstrates the potentialities of this procedure to develop novel optical encryption or anti-counterfeiting structures either at micrometer- or macroscales.
Advanced Functional Materials, 23 (2013) 1655-1663 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201201900

Angular response of photonic crystal based dye sensitized solar cells

López López, C.; Colodrero, S.; Calvo, M.E. and Míguez, H.
Herein we report an experimental analysis of the performance of photonic crystal based dye solar cells (PC-DSCs) as the incident light angle moves away from the normal with respect to the cell surface. Nanoparticle multilayers operating at different wavelength ranges were coupled to the working electrode of a dye solar cell for this study. The interplay between optical and photovoltaic properties with the incident light angle is discussed. We demonstrate that an efficiency enhancement is attained for PC-DSCs at all angles measured, and that rational design of the photonic crystal back mirror leads to a reduction of the photocurrent losses related to the tilt angle of the cell, usually labeled as cosine losses. Angular variations of the cell transparency are also reported and discussed. These angular properties are relevant to the application of these solar devices in building integrated photovoltaics as potential window modules.
Energy & Environmental Science, 6 (2013) 1260-1266 | DOI: 10.1039/C3EE23609A

Tuning of Cell–Biomaterial Anchorage for Tissue Regeneration

Leal-Egana, Aldo; Diaz-Cuenca, Aranzazu; Boccaccini, Aldo R
Which mechanisms mediate cell attachment to biomaterials? What role does the surface charge or wettability play on cell–material anchorage? What are the currently investigated strategies to modify cell–matrix adherence spatiotemporally? Considering the development of scaffolds made of biocompatible materials to temporarily replace the structure and/or function of the extracellular matrix, focus is given to the analysis of the specific (i.e., cell adhesive peptide sequences) and unspecific (i.e., surface charge, wettability) mechanisms mediating cell-matrix interactions. Furthermore, because natural tissue regeneration is characterized by the dynamic attachment/detachment of different cell populations, the design of advanced scaffolds for tissue engineering, based in the spatiotemporal tuning of cell–matrix anchorage is discussed.
Advanced Materials, 25 (2013) 4049-4057 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201301227

Resonant Photocurrent Generation in Dye-Sensitized Periodically Nanostructured Photoconductors by Optical Field Confinement Effects

Anaya, M; Calvo, ME; Luque-Raigon, JM; Miguez, H
Herein we show experimental evidence of resonant photocurrent generation in dye-sensitized periodically nanostructured photoconductors, which is achieved by spectral matching of the sensitizer absorption band to different types of localized photon modes present in either periodic or broken symmetry structures. Results are explained in terms of the calculated spatial distribution of the electric field intensity within the configurations under analysis.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 135 (2013) 7803-7806 | DOI: 10.1021/ja401096k

Selective UV Reflecting Mirrors Based on Nanoparticle Multilayers

Smirnov, JRC; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
A new type of nanostructured selective ultraviolet (UV) reflecting mirror is presented. Periodic porous multilayers with photonic crystal properties are built by spin-coating-assisted layer-by-layer deposition of colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles of ZrO2 and SiO2 (electronic band gap at λ < 220 nm). These optical filters are designed to block well-defined wavelength ranges of the UVA, UVB, and UVC regions of the electromagnetic spectrum while preserving transparency in the visible. The shielding against those spectral regions arises exclusively from optical interference phenomena and depends only on the number of stacked layers and the refractive index contrast between them. In addition, it is shown that the accessible pore network of the as-deposited multilayer allows preparing thin, flexible, self-standing, transferable, and adaptable selective UV filters by polymer infiltration, without significantly losing reflectance intensity, i.e., preserving the dielectric contrast. These films offer a degree of protection comparable to that of traditional ones, without any foreseeable unwanted secondary effects, such as photodegradation, increase of local temperature or, as is the case for organic absorbers, generation of free radicals, all of which are caused by light absorption.
Advanced Functional Materials, 23 (2013) 2805-2811 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201202587

Vertically Aligned Hybrid Core/Shell Semiconductor Nanowires for Photonics Applications

Macias-Montero, M; Filippin, AN; Saghi, Z; Aparicio, FJ; Barranco, A; Espinos, JP; Frutos, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Borras, A
A family of 1D organic/inorganic core/shell materials formed by an inner organic nanowire (ONW) conformally covered with an inorganic wide band gap semiconductor (ZnO or TiO2) layer is presented. The developed procedure is a two-steps vacuum methodology involving the formation of supported single crystal small-molecule nanowires by physical vapor deposition and plasma enhance chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of the inorganic shell. Critical characteristics of the last technique are the possibilities of low temperature and remote configuration deposition. Additionally, an initial step has to be included in order to create nucleation centers for the growth of the ONWs. The procedure and its general character in terms of the variability in organic core and inorganic shells composition and the applicability of the technique to different substrates are presented. The formation of the inorganic shell with no damage of the organic core single-crystalline structure is demonstrated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The vertical alignment of the hybrid nanostructure is achieved thanks to the interaction of the 1D organic nanostructured surfaces and the glow discharge during the deposition of the inorganic shell by PECVD. The optical properties of these core/shell NWs are studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and microscopy, and their application as nanoscale waveguides in the 550–750 nm range addressed.
Advanced Functional Materiales, 23 (2013) 5981-5989 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201301120

Perfectly Transparent Sr3Al2O6 Polycrystalline Ceramic Elaborated from Glass Crystallization

Alahrache, S; Al Saghir, K; Chenu, S; Veron, E; Meneses, DD; Becerro, AI; Ocana, M; Moretti, F; Patton, G; Dujardin, C; Cusso, F; Guin, JP; Nivard, M; Sangleboeuf, JC; Matzen, G; Allix, M
The highly visible and infrared (up to 6 mu m) transparent Sr3Al2O6 polycrystalline ceramic was obtained by full crystallization of the corresponding glass composition. The glass synthesis and the direct congruent crystallization processes are described, and the material transparency is discussed in light of its microstructure. This new transparent ceramic exhibits a high density (i.e., complete absence of porosity) and micrometer-scale crystallites with very thin grain boundaries. These microstructural characteristics, inherent to the preparation method, minimize light scattering and demonstrate the advantages of this synthesis route compared to the high-pressure process used for the few reported transparent polycrystalline materials. This Sr3Al2O6 ceramic shows a H = 10.5 GPa hardness, a E-r = 150 GPa reduced elasticity modulus, and a 9.6 x 10(-6) K-1 thermal expansion coefficient. Such a transparent strontium aluminate ceramic opens the way to a wide range of applications, especially photonics when doped by various doping agents. As examples, the luminescence of Sr3Al2O6:Eu3+ and Sr3Al2O6:Er3+, which show strong emissions in the visible and infrared ranges, respectively, is presented. Moreover, the Sr3Al2O6:Ce3+ material was found to exhibit scintillation properties under X-ray excitation. Interestingly, the analogous Sr3Ga2O6 transparent polycrystalline ceramic material could equally be prepared using the same elaboration method, although its hygroscopicity prevents the preservation of its high transparency under normal conditions. The establishment of the key factors for the transparency of this economical and innovative synthesis method should enable the prediction of new classes of technologically relevant transparent ceramics.
Chemistry of Materials, 25 (2013) 4017-4024 | DOI: 10.1021/cm401953d

Competing Misfit Relaxation Mechanisms in Epitaxial Correlated Oxides

Sandiumenge, F; Santiso, J; Balcells, L; Konstantinovic, Z; Roqueta, J; Pomar, A; Espinos, JP; Martinez, B
Strain engineering of functional properties in epitaxial thin films of strongly correlated oxides exhibiting octahedral-framework structures is hindered by the lack of adequate misfit relaxation models. Here we present unreported experimental evidence of a four-stage hierarchical development of octahedral-framework perturbations resulting from a progressive imbalance between electronic, elastic, and octahedral tilting energies in La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 epitaxial thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates. Electronic softening of the Mn-O bonds near the substrate leads to the formation of an interfacial layer clamped to the substrate with strongly degraded magnetotransport properties, i.e., the so-called dead layer, while rigid octahedral tilts become relevant at advanced growth stages without significant effects on charge transport and magnetic ordering.
Physical Review Letters, 110 (2013) 107206 | DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.107206

Promotional effect of the base metal on bimetallic Au-Ni/CeO2 catalysts prepared from core-shell nanoparticles

Holgado, JP; Ternero, F; Gonzalez-delaCruz, VM; Caballero, A
A set of three catalysts (a Au–Ni bimetallic and their corresponding Au and Ni monometallics) has been prepared by impregnation of previously prepared suspensions of monodisperse metallic particles to ensure the precise control of their physicochemical characteristics (size and composition). The Au–Ni/CeO2 bimetallic catalysts present better reactivity toward CO oxidation than monometallic Au/CeO2 and Ni/CeO2 prepared under identical conditions. “operando-like” characterization of Ni and Au atoms into the bimetallic particles using, among other techniques, ambient-pressure photoelectron spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy has allowed us to determine that under oxidative conditions the samples present a Au@NiO core–shell distribution, where Ni surface atoms are affected by an electronic effect from inner Au atoms.
ACS Catalysis, 3 (2013) 2169-2180 | DOI: 10.1021/cs400293b

Characterisation of Co@Fe3O4 core@shell nanoparticles using advanced electron microscopy

Knappett, BR; Abdulkin, P; Ringe, E; Jefferson, DA; Lozano-Perez, S; Rojas, TC; Fernandez, A; Wheatley, AEH
Cobalt nanoparticles were synthesised via the thermal decomposition of Co2(CO)8 and were coated in iron oxide using Fe(CO)5. While previous work focused on the subsequent thermal alloying of these nanoparticles, this study fully elucidates their composition and core@shell structure. State-of-the-art electron microscopy and statistical data processing enabled chemical mapping of individual particles through the acquisition of energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images and detailed electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis (MSA) has been used to greatly improve the quality of elemental mapping data from core@shell nanoparticles. Results from a combination of spatially resolved microanalysis reveal the shell as Fe3O4 and show that the core is composed of oxidatively stable metallic Co. For the first time, a region of lower atom density between the particle core and shell has been observed and identified as a trapped carbon residue attributable to the organic capping agents present in the initial Co nanoparticle synthesis.
Nanoscale, 5 (2013) 5765-5772 | DOI: 10.1039/C3NR33789H

High temperature plasticity in yttria stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals (Y-TZP)

Dominguez-Rodriguez, A; Gomez-Garcia, D; Wakai, F
The literature data on the superplastic deformation of high purity yttria stabilised tetragonal zirconia polycrystals is reviewed in detail. It is shown that, based on the existence of a threshold stress, the single mechanism of grain boundary sliding (GBS) accommodated by diffusional processes can explain the superplasticity of these materials over all the ranges of temperature, stress, grain size, and surrounding atmosphere that have been studied. The origin of the threshold stress and its quantitative dependence on temperature and grain size is explained in terms of the segregation of yttrium atoms at the grain boundaries. A new model for GBS accommodated by lattice or grain-boundary diffusion is presented which can explain the transition of the stress exponent from 2 to 1.
International Materials Reviews, 58 (2013) 399-417 | DOI: 10.1179/1743280413Y.0000000018

A single-source route to bulk samples of C3N and the co-evolution of graphitic carbon microspheres

King, TC; Matthews, PD; Holgado, JP; Jefferson, DA; Lambert, RM; Alavi, A; Wright, DS
The thermolysis of commercially available m-phenylenediamine (1,3-(NH2)2C6H4) at 800 °C under a static vacuum in a sealed quartz tube provides the first bulk synthesis of C3N, whose properties have only been predicted theoretically previously. Hollow carbon microspheres (CMSs) which do not contain significant nitrogen doping (1–3 μm diameter) are co-produced in the reaction and readily separated from the C3N flakes. The separate C3N flakes and CMSs have been characterized by electron microscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. These studies show that the samples of C3N and CMSs both possess multi-layered turbostratic graphitic structures. A new mechanism for the template-free assembly of CMSs is proposed on the basis of electron microscopy that involves bubble evolution from a static carbonized layer.
Carbon, 64 (2013) 6-10 | DOI: 10.1016/j.carbon.2013.04.043

High-performance Er3+–TiO2 system: Dual up-conversion and electronic role of the lanthanide

Obregon, S; Kubacka, A; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Colon, G
Erbium-doped TiO2 materials are synthesized by means of a surfactant-free hydrothermal method having good photoactivities for the liquid-phase degradation of phenol and MB and the gas phase of toluene. From the structural and morphological characterization, it has been stated that the presence of Er3+ induces a progressive anatase cell expansion due to its incorporation in the TiO2 lattice. The best photocatalytic performance was attained for the samples with 2 at% of Er3+ irrespective of the chemical degradation reaction essayed. From activity and optical studies under different irradiation excitation conditions, a dual-type mechanism is proposed to be at the origin of the photocatalytic activity enhancement. On one hand, the improvement observed under UV irradiation occurs by the effective charge separation promoted by Er3+ species which would act as electron scavenger. Besides, the up-conversion luminescence process of Er3+ allows profiting the NIR range of the lamp and transferring energy in the UV range to the TiO2. The dual action of Er ions located at anatase networks will open up a wide roadway for the developing of an integral solar active photocatalyst.
Journal of Catalysis, 299 (2013) 298-306 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2012.12.021

Erbium doped TiO2–Bi2WO6 heterostructure with improved photocatalytic activity under sun-like irradiation

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Erbium doped TiO2–Bi2WO6 have been synthesized by means of a surfactant free hydrothermal method having good photoactivities under sun-like excitation for the degradation of Rhodamine B. From the structural and morphological characterization it has been stated that the presence of Er3+ induces a progressive russelite cell contraction due to its incorporation in the Bi2WO6 lattice in substitutional sites. The best photocatalytic performance was attained for the samples with 1 at% of Er. From the study of the photocatalytic activity under different irradiation conditions it can be inferred that Er3+ presence induces a significant improvement of the photoactivity in the UV range. The evolution of band-gap values seems to be similarly related with the reaction rate progression. Thus, the higher band-gap values in lower Er doped systems would be the cause of a better electron hole separation under UV irradiation.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 140-141 (2013) 299-305 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.04.014

In situ FT-IR study of the adsorption and photocatalytic oxidation of ethanol over sulfated and metallized TiO2

Murcia, JJ; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA; Arana, J; Dona-Rodriguez, JM
TiO2 Degussa P25, TiO2 prepared by sol–gel submitted to sulfation pre-treatment and some metallized catalysts obtained by photodeposition of Au or Pt over the sulfated TiO2, were evaluated in the reaction of ethanol photo-oxidation. FT-IR spectroscopy was used to investigate the surface features of the photocatalysts, identifying adsorbed species and following the evolution of intermediate products in the ethanol photo-oxidation reaction. Nature of surface acidity in terms of Brönsted and Lewis centers was also studied. Results showed that sulfation pre-treatment and metallization were important factors influencing the selectivity. Acetaldehyde was the main oxidation product on sulfated TiO2; in the case of P25 also acetates production was observed. The photodeposition of metals had a detrimental effect on the selectivity to acetaldehyde; on metallized catalysts the formation of stable secondary intermediates was detected. Based on these findings, a reaction pathway for the ethanol photo-oxidation over the different photocatalysts, via acetaldehyde or via acetate formation is proposed.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 142-143 (2013) 205-213 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2013.05.022

Liquids Analysis with Optofluidic Bragg Microcavities

Oliva-Ramirez, M; Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Parra-Barranco, J; Yubero, F; Barranco, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Porous Bragg microcavities formed by stacking a series of porous nanocolumnar layers with alternate low (SiO2) and high (TiO2) refractive index materials have been prepared by physical vapor deposition at glancing angles (GLAD). By strictly controlling the porosity and refractive index of the individual films, as well as the relative orientation of the nanocolumns from one layer to the next, very porous and nondispersive high optical quality microcavities have been manufactured. These photonic structures have been implemented into responsive devices to characterize liquids, mixtures of liquids, or solutions flowing through them. The large displacements observed in the optical spectral features (Bragg reflector gap and resonant peak) of the photonic structures have been quantitatively correlated by optical modeling with the refractive index of the circulating liquids. Experiments carried out with different glucose and NaCl solutions and mixtures of water plus glycerol illustrate the potentialities of these materials to serve as optofluidic devices to determine the concentration of solutions or the proportion of two phases in a liquid mixture.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5 (2013) 6743-650 | DOI: 10.1021/am401685r

Preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 over CuO/CeO2 catalysts: Characterization and performance as a function of the exposed face present in the CeO2 support

Gamarra, D; Camara, AL; Monte, M; Rasmussen, SB; Chinchilla, LE; Hungria, AB; Munuera, G; Gyorffy, N; Schay, Z; Corberan, VC; Conesa, JC; Martinez-Arias, A
A series of oxidised copper-cerium nanostructured catalysts prepared by impregnation of copper over ceria supports synthesized by different methods (hydrothermal with varying preparation parameters, microemulsion/precipitation), in order to achieve different specific morphologies (nanocubes, nanorods and nanospheres), have been examined with respect to their catalytic properties for preferential oxidation of CO in excess H2 (CO-PROX). The catalysts have been characterized in detail by XRD, Raman, SBET measurement, HREM, XPS, TPR and EPR, which allows establishing a model of structural characteristics of the catalysts. The characterization results have been correlated with analysis of CO-PROX catalytic properties by means of catalytic activity measurements complemented by operando-DRIFTS. Structural dependence of the CO oxidation reaction on the dispersed copper oxide entities as a function of the exposed face present at the surface of the different ceria supports is revealed. An important overall enhancement of the CO-PROX performance is detected for the sample supported on ceria nanocubes which is proposed to be a consequence of the interaction between copper oxide and (1 0 0) faces of the ceria support.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 130-131 (2013) 224-238 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.11.008

Multiple Zeolite Structures from One Ionic Liquid Template

Blanes, JMM; Szyja, BM; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Hensen, EJM; Odriozola, JA; Ivanova, S
This study reports the use of 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium methanesulfonate ionic liquid as a template in the synthesis of zeolites. It is found that the silicon source determines the formation of beta (BEA), mordenite framework inverted (MFI), or analcime (ANA) zeolites. Depending on this source, different preorganized complexes are obtained that drive the formation of the different zeolite structures. In the presence of ethanol, the ionic liquid form preorganized complexes that drive the formation of MFI. In its absence, BEA is obtained. Whereas, the large amount of sodium present when using sodium metasilicate leads to ANA formation. A molecular simulation study of the relative stability of the template-framework system and location of the template provides further insight into the mechanism of synthesis.
Chemistry-A European Journal, 19 (2013) 2122-2130 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201202556

Constant rate thermal analysis for enhancing the long-term CO2 capture of CaO at Ca-looping conditions

Valverde, JM; Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perejon, A; Perez-Maqueda, LA
Experimental results are reported on the (Ca-looping) multicyclic CO2 capture of CaO and nanosilica/CaO composites derived from Ca(OH)2 and nanosilica/Ca(OH)2 dry mixtures subjected in situ to linear and constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA) preheating programs in either air or air/CO2 atmospheres. By means of CRTA preheating the rates of the reactions taking place during pretreatment are kept at a constant and small value along the entire process. In agreement with a pore skeleton model, previously proposed in the literature for explaining the behavior of natural limestones thermally pretreated, our results suggest that air/CO2-CRTA pretreatment yields a thermally stable hard skeleton of poorly reactive CaO on which a soft skeleton of reactive CaO would be supported. The sorbent subjected to this preheating program exhibits a reactivation in the very first carbonation/calcination cycles, after which CaO conversion decays slowly with the cycle number. In contrast, linearly or air-CRTA preheated sorbents show a significant decrease of CaO conversion within the first cycles. In the latter case, CaO multicyclic conversion fits well to a model where it is assumed that the progressive reduction of surface area as the number of carbonation/calcination cycles is increased obeys to sintering of the preheated sorbent skeleton as it is subjected to repeated calcinations during cycling. In the former case, CaO conversion data conforms to the prediction by a model in which the loss of surface area is mainly due to sintering of a nascent CaO soft skeleton regenerated in the diffusive carbonation phase, which is enhanced by the air/CO2-CRTA pretreatment. As regards the effect of nanosilica, the results indicate that it slows down CaO sintering during pretreatment, which hinders the development of a stable CaO skeleton thus hampering reactivation and stabilization of conversion. On the other hand, as CaO sintering is also lessened during looping calcination, nanosilica is useful to increase the absolute values of CaO conversion.
Applied Energy, 108 (2013) 108-120 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2013.03.013

Colored and Transparent Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering: The Glass Blower Approach

Gil-Rostra, J; Chaboy, J; Yubero, F; Vilajoana, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
This work describes the reactive magnetron sputtering processing at room temperature of several mixed oxide MxSiyOz thin films (M: Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, W, Cu) intended for optical, coloring, and aesthetic applications. Specific colors can be selected by adjusting the plasma gas composition and the Si–M ratio in the magnetron target. The microstructure and chemistry of the films are characterized by a large variety of techniques including X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and infrared spectroscopy, while their optical properties are characterized by UV–vis transmission and reflection analysis. Particularly, XAS analysis of the M cations in the amorphous thin films has provided valuable information about their chemical state and local structure. It is concluded that the M cations are randomly distributed within the SiO2 matrix and that both the M concentration and its chemical state are the key parameters to control the final color of the films.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 5 (2013) 1967-1976 | DOI: 10.1021/am302778h

Advanced nanoarchitectures for solar photocatalytic applications

Kubacka, A; Fernandez-Garcia, M; Colon, G
Advanced nanostructured materials that demonstrate useful activity under solar excitation in fields concerned with the elimination of pollutants, partial oxidation and the valorization of chemical compounds, water splitting and CO 2 reduction processes, are discussed. Point defects present in nanoparticulated anatase present both 5-fold- and 6-fold-coordinated titanium atoms, as well as 2-fold- and 3-fold-coordinated oxygens. The requirement of using sunlight as the excitation source for the degradation reaction demands, as a principal requirement, the modification of the electronic characteristics of a UV absorber system such as anatase-TiO 2. Some reports also indicate the need for large doping concentrations for N-doping in specific cases where notable changes in the valence band onset are subsequently observed. The effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on the crystallization is reported by Yin et al. They showed that the presence of CTAB induces the appearance of BiOBr during the synthesis at 80°C using an aqueous method.
Chemical Reviews, 112 (2012) 1555-1614 | DOI: 10.1021/cr100454n

Collective osmotic shock in ordered materials

Paul Zavala-Rivera, Kevin Channon, Vincent Nguyen, Easan Sivaniah, Dinesh Kabra, Richard H. Friend, S. K. Nataraj, Shaheen A. Al-Muhtaseb, Alexander Hexemer, Mauricio E. Calvo & Hernan Miguez
Osmotic shock in a vesicle or cell is the stress build-up and subsequent rupture of the phospholipid membrane that occurs when a relatively high concentration of salt is unable to cross the membrane and instead an inflow of water alleviates the salt concentration gradient. This is a well-known failure mechanism for cells and vesicles (for example, hypotonic shock) and metal alloys (for example, hydrogen embrittlement). We propose the concept of collective osmotic shock, whereby a coordinated explosive fracture resulting from multiplexing the singular effects of osmotic shock at discrete sites within an ordered material results in regular bicontinuous structures. The concept is demonstrated here using self-assembled block copolymer micelles, yet it is applicable to organized heterogeneous materials where a minority component can be selectively degraded and solvated whilst ensconced in a matrix capable of plastic deformation. We discuss the application of these self-supported, perforated multilayer materials in photonics, nanofiltration and optoelectronics.
Nature Materials, 11 (2012) 53–57 | DOI: 10.1038/nmat3179

Introducing structural colour in DSCs by using photonic crystals: interplay between conversion efficiency and optical properties

Colonna, D; Colodrero, S; Lindstrom, H; Di Carlo, A; Miguez, H
Herein we analyze experimentally the effect that introducing highly reflecting photonic crystals, operating at different spectral ranges, has on the conversion efficiency of dye sensitized solar cells. The interplay between structural colour and cell performance is discussed on the basis of the modified spectral response of the photogenerated current observed and the optical characterization of the cells. We demonstrate that, with the approach herein discussed, it is possible to achieve relatively high efficiencies using thin electrodes while preserving transparency. At the same time, the appearance of the device can be controllably modified, which is of relevance for their potential application in building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) as window modules.
Energy & Environmental Science, 5 (2012) 8238-8243 | DOI: 10.1039/c2ee02658a

Efficient Transparent Thin Dye Solar Cells Based on Highly Porous 1D Photonic Crystals

Colodrero, S; Forneli, A; Lopez-Lopez, C; Pelleja, L; Miguez, H; Palomares, E
A working electrode design based on a highly porous 1D photonic crystal structure that opens the path towards high photocurrents in thin, transparent, dye-sensitized solar cells is presented. By enlarging the average pore size with respect to previous photonic crystal designs, the new working electrode not only increases the device photocurrent, as predicted by theoretical models, but also allows the observation of an unprecedented boost of the cell photovoltage, which can be attributed to structural modifications caused during the integration of the photonic crystal. These synergic effects yield conversion efficiencies of around 3.5% by using just 2 mu m thick electrodes, with enhancements between 100% and 150% with respect to reference cells of the same thickness.
Advanced Functional Materials, 22 (2012) 1303-1310 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201102159

How Important is Working with an Ordered Electrode to Improve the Charge Collection Efficiency in Nanostructured Solar Cells?

Gonzalez-Vazquez, JP; Morales-Florez, V; Anta, JA
The collection efficiency of carriers in solar cells based on nanostructured electrodes is determined for different degrees or morphological one-dimensional order. The transport process is modeled by random walk numerical simulation in a mesoporous electrode that resembles the morphology of nanostructured TiO2 electrodes typically used in dye-sensitized solar cells and related systems. By applying an energy relaxation procedure in the presence of an external potential, a preferential direction is induced in the system. It is found that the partially ordered electrode can almost double the collection efficiency with respect to the disordered electrode. However, this improvement depends strongly on the probability of recombination. For too rapid or too slow recombination, working with partially ordered electrodes will not be beneficial. The computational method utilized here makes it possible to relate the charge collection efficiency with morphology. The collection efficiency is found to reach very rapidly a saturation value, meaning that, in the region of interest, a slight degree of ordering might be sufficient to induce a large improvement in collection efficiency.
Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 3 (2012) 386-393 | DOI: 10.1021/jz2015988

Evidence of upconversion luminescence contribution to the improved photoactivity of erbium doped TiO2 systems

Obregon, S; Colon, G
Er3+–TiO2 synthesized by a surfactant free hydrothermal method exhibits good photoactivities under sun-like excitation for the degradation of phenol. The presence of Er3+ does not affect the structural and morphological features of the TiO2 significantly. The best photocatalytic performance was attained for the samples with 2 wt% of Er. Different photocatalytic runs indicated that the incorporation of the Er3+ cation would be responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity, which participates in different mechanisms under UV and NIR excitation.
Chemical Communications, 48 (2012) 7865-7867 | DOI: 10.1039/C2CC33391K

Self-assembly at room temperature of thermally stable discrete and extended oligomers of polycyclic aromatics on Ag(100): induced dipoles and cooperative effects

Papageorgiou, AC; Alavi, A; Lambert, RM
Thermally stable nanoarchitectures are realized on the Ag(100) surface by self-assembly of asymmetrically substituted arenes. The process is instigated by adsorption-induced molecule → surface charge transfer that gives rise to in-plane dipole moments. Observation and calculation indicate that cooperative interactions further enhance the stability of these polarizable systems.
Chemical Communications, 48 (2012) 3394-3396 | DOI: 10.1039/c2cc17728e

Nanoecotoxicity effects of engineered silver and gold nanoparticles in aquatic organisms

Lapresta-Fernandez, A; Fernandez, A; Blasco, J
Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are increasingly being incorporated into commercial products. A better understanding is required of their environmental impacts in aquatic ecosystems. This review deals with the ecotoxicity effects of silver and gold ENPs (AgNPs and AuNPs) in aquatic organisms, and considers the means by which these ENPs enter aquatic environments, their aggregation status and their toxicity. Since ENPs are transported horizontally and vertically in the water column, we discuss certain factors (e.g., salinity and the presence of natural organic materials), as they cause variations in the degree of aggregation, size range and ENP toxicity. We pay special attention to oxidative stress induced in organisms by ENPs. We describe some of the main analytical methods used to determine reactive oxygen species, antioxidant enzyme activity, DNA damage, protein modifications, lipid peroxidation and relevant metabolic activities. We offer an overview of the mechanisms of action of AgNPs and AuNPs and the ways that relevant environmental factors can affect their speciation, agglomeration or aggregation, and ultimately their bio-availability to aquatic organisms. Finally, we discuss similarities and differences in the adverse effects of ENPs in freshwater and salt-water systems.
TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 32 (2012) 40-59 | DOI: 10.1016/j.trac.2011.09.007

Public concern over ecotoxicology risks from nanomaterials: Pressing need for research-based information

Lapresta-Fernandez, A; Fernandez, A; Blasco, J
[No abstract available]
Environment International, 39 (2012) 148-149 | DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.10.012

Enhanced diffusion through porous nanoparticle optical multilayers

Lopez-Lopez, C; Colodrero, S; Raga, SR; Lindstrom, H; Fabregat-Santiago, F; Bisquert, J; Miguez, H
Herein we demonstrate improved mass transport through nano-particle one-dimensional photonic crystals of enhanced porosity. Analysis is made by impedance spectroscopy using iodine and ionic liquid based electrolytes and shows that newly created large pores and increased porosity improve the diffusion of species through the photonic crystal. This achievement is based on the use of a polymeric porogen (polyethylene glycol), which is mixed with the precursor suspensions used for the deposition of nanoparticle TiO2 and SiO2 layers and then eliminated to generate a more open interconnected void network, as confirmed by specular reflectance porosimetry. A compromise between pore size and optical quality of these periodic structures is found.
Journal of Materials Chemistry, 22 (2012) 1751-1757 | DOI: 10.1039/c1jm15202e

Weakly Interacting Molecular Layer of Spinning C60 Molecules on TiO2 (110) Surfaces

Sanchez-Sanchez, C; Lanzilotto, V; Gonzalez, C; Verdini, A; de Andres, PL; Floreano, L; Lopez, MF; Martin-Gago, JA
The adsorption of C60, a typical acceptor organic molecule, on a TiO2 (110) surface has been investigated by a multitechnique combination, including van der Waals density functional calculations. It is shown that the adsorbed molecules form a weakly interacting molecular layer, which sits on the fivefold-coordinated Ti that is confined between the prominent bridging oxygen rows (see figure).
Chemistry-A European Journal, 18 (2012) 7382-7387 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.201200627

Cu-modified cryptomelane oxide as active catalyst for CO oxidation reactions

Hernandez, Willinton Y.; Centeno, Miguel A.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Eloy, Pierre; Gaigneaux, Eric M.; Odriozola, Jose A.
Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (cryptomelane structure) were synthesized by a solvent-free method and tested in the total oxidation of CO (TOX), and preferential oxidation of CO in presence of hydrogen (PROX). The influence of Cu in the cryptomelane structure was evaluated by several characterization techniques such as: X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), hydrogen temperature programmed reduction (TPR-H2) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Cu-modified manganese oxide material (OMS-Cu) showed very high catalytic activity for CO oxidation in comparison to the bare manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS). The improved catalytic activity observed in OMS-Cu catalyst was associated to a high lattice oxygen mobility and availability due to the formation of Cusingle bondMnsingle bondO bridges. In addition, under PROX reaction conditions the catalytic activity considerably decreases in the presence of 10% (v/v) CO2 in the feed while the same amount of water provokes an improvement in the CO conversion and O2 selectivity.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 123-124 (2012) 27-35 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.04.024

New insights into the synergistic effect in bimetallic-boron catalysts for hydrogen generation: The Co–Ru–B system as a case study

Arzac, G. M.; Rojas, T. C.; Fernandez, A.
Catalysed sodium borohydride hydrolysis is a high-potential method to produce hydrogen for portable applications. Co–B catalysts are the most chosen because they are easily prepared, cheap and efficient. The addition of small amounts of Ru produces a significant enhancement in catalytic activity. In the present work a series of Co–Ru–B catalysts with variable Ru content was prepared, isolated and characterized. The comprehension of the synergistic effect was achieved trough the incorporation of the nanostructural dimension to the study of surface and bulk chemical states of the involved atoms along the series. It was found that up to 70% (of total metal) atomic content of Ru the catalysts can be considered isostructural to the single Co–B catalyst in the nanoscale. A structural transition occurs in the case of the pure Ru–B material to produce a boron deficient material with higher nanoparticle size. This structural transition together with Co segregation and Ru dispersion play a key role when explaining a [OH−] dependent effect. The inexistence of borate layers in Ru rich catalysts is suggestive in the research for non deactivating catalysts.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 128 (2012) 39-47 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.02.013

LaNiO3 as a precursor of Ni/La2O3 for CO2 reforming of CH4: Effect of the presence of an amorphous NiO phase

Rosa Pereñiguez , Victor M. Gonzalez-delaCruz, Alfonso Caballero, Juan P. Holgado,
The objective of the present work has been the study of the physico-chemical and catalytic properties of Ni/La2O3 catalysts obtained by reduction of four LaNiO3 samples prepared by different methods. The LaNiO3 precursors as well as the resulting Ni/La2O3 catalysts, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), temperature programmed reduction and oxidation (TPR, TPO). The catalytic performances of these systems for dry reforming of methane (DRM) were also tested. These samples show different physico-chemical properties resulting from the synthesis method used. The XAS and TPR measurements show that in all four LaNiO3 samples there is, in addition of the crystalline LaNiO3 rhombohedrical phase, a significant amount of an amorphous NiO phase, not detectable by XRD but evidenced by XAS. The amount of this NiO amorphous phase seems to play, together with some other microstructural parameters, an important role in the performance of the Ni/La2O3 samples for the DRM reaction.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 123-124 (2012) 324-32 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.04.044

Hydrothermal synthesis of BiVO4: Structural and morphological influence on the photocatalytic activity

Obregon, S; Caballero, A; Colon, G
BiVO 4 hierarchical heterostructures are synthesized by means of a surfactant free hydrothermal method having good photoactivities for the degradation of methylene blue under UV-vis irradiation. From the structural and morphological characterization it has been stated that BiVO 4 present the monoclinic crystalline phase with different morphologies depending on the pH value, type of precipitating agent and hydrothermal temperature and treatment time. The best photocatalytic performance was attained for the samples with needle-like morphology.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 117 (2012) 59-66 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.12.037

Effect of the active metals on the selective H-2 production in glycerol steam reforming

Araque, M; Martinez, LM; Vargas, JC; Centeno, MA; Roger, AC
The production of hydrogen by glycerol steam reforming was studied using CeZr(Co, CoRh) catalysts. The effect of Co and Rh presence on the properties of the mixed oxides and the effect on the catalytic behavior were considered. The catalysts were characterized before and after testing by XRD, Raman, TPR, H 2-TPD, TPD-TPO and HRTEM. It was observed that the presence of Co allowed the selective H 2 production related with the presence of a metallic phase at the beginning of the reaction. The presence of Rh favored even more the H 2 production and also increased the stability of the catalyst. For CeZrCoRh, the presence of both metals enhanced the catalyst reduction capacity, a characteristic that significantly improved the catalytic behavior for glycerol steam reforming. The selective H 2 production was related to the capacity of the catalyst to activate H 2O under the reaction conditions. The progressive loss of this capacity decreases the production of H 2, and glycerol decomposition is actually favored over glycerol steam reforming. According to the initial distribution of products, and its evolution with time on stream, two main reaction pathways were proposed.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 125 (2012) 556-566 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.06.028

Effect of deposition of silver on structural characteristics and photoactivity of TiO2-based photocatalysts

Melian, EP; Diaz, OG; Rodriguez, JMD; Colon, G; Navio, JA; Macias, M; Pena, JP
The homemade bare TiO2 photocatalyst obtained in a previous work was modified with nanosized silver particles by liquid impregnation and photodeposition methods to obtain different noble metal loadings (0.3–1 at.%). Characterization of the synthesized photocatalysts was carried out by the BET method, XPS, TEM, SEM-EDX, XRD and diffuse reflectance measurements. Photocatalytic activity of these silver-deposited TiO2 nanoparticles was tested by photocatalytic degradation of phenol as a reference model representing phenolic pollutants. The noble metal content on the TiO2 surface affected the efficiency of the photocatalytic process, and the photocatalytic activity of noble metal-modified TiO2 was considerably better than that of bare TiO2. Phenol decomposition rate was higher with TiO2 modified by the liquid impregnation method than with TiO2 modified by the photodeposition method.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 127 (2012) 112-120 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.08.007

Influence of the shape of Ni catalysts in the glycerol steam reforming

Bobadilla, L. F.; Alvarez, A.; Dominguez, M. I.; Romero-Sarria, F.; Centeno, M. A.; Montes, M.; Odriozola, J. A.
Biomass is an alternative to replace the use of fossil fuels. Glycerol, a byproduct in the biodiesel production, can be used for obtaining hydrogen. The most efficient method for obtaining hydrogen from glycerol is the steam reforming (SR). So far all the published papers report the use of conventional catalyst. In this paper, a structured catalyst has been prepared and compared with the conventional ones (powder and spherical pellets). Results show that the structured catalyst (monolith) is more stable as formation of coke was not observed.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 123-124 (2012) 379-390 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.05.004

Insights towards the influence of Pt features on the photocatalytic activity improvement of TiO2 by platinisation

Murcia, JJ; Navio, JA; Hidalgo, MC
The influence of Pt features, such as particle size, dispersion, oxidation state and amount of metal, on the improvement of the photoactivity of TiO2 for phenol and methyl orange degradation was studied. The size of Pt deposits was precisely controlled by changing deposition time under medium light intensity during the photodeposition, with sizes ranging from 3 to 6 nm. Pt oxidation state was also strongly dependent on the photodeposition time. Photocatalytic activity results showed that the fraction of metallic platinum (Pt0) was the crucial factor for the improvement of the activity. When the fraction of Pt0 was similar, metal deposit size became the dominant parameter influencing the activity. The influence of the substrate to be degraded (phenol or methyl orange) was also studied.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 126 (2012) 76-85 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.07.013

Selective photooxidation of alcohols as test reaction for photocatalytic activity

Lopez-Tenllado, F. J.; Marinas, A.; Urbano, F. J.; Colmenares, J. C.; Hidalgo, M. C.; Marinas, J. M.; Moreno, J. M.
Twenty-four different titania-based systems synthesized through the sol–gel process varying the precursor (titanium isopropoxide or tetrachloride) and/or the ageing conditions (magnetic stirring, ultrasounds, microwave or reflux) were tested for liquid-phase selective photooxidation of 2-butenol (crotyl alcohol) to 2-butenal (crotonaldehyde) and gas-phase selective photooxidation of 2-propanol to acetone. To the best of our knowledge, the former process is suggested for the first time as test reaction for photocatalytic activity. Interestingly, both test reactions (despite having very different reactant/catalyst ratio and contact times) showed quite similar results in terms of influence of the precursor (titanium isopropoxide leading to better results than titanium tetrachloride) and the metals (the presence of iron, palladium or zinc being detrimental to activity whereas zirconium and especially gold improved the results as compared to pure titania). To our mind, these results give validity to both processes as test reactions for a fast screening of catalysts for photocatalytic tranformations. Finally, some gold-containing solids even improved photocatalytic activity of Degussa P25.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 128 (2012) 150-158 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2012.02.015

Enhancement of Fast CO2 Capture by a Nano-SiO2/CaO Composite at Ca-Looping Conditions

Valverde, JM; Perejon, A; Perez-Maqueda, LA
In this paper we show the performance of a new CO 2 sorbent consisting of a dry physical mixture of a Ca-based sorbent and a SiO 2 nanostructured powder. Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) performed at conditions close to the Ca-looping process demonstrate that the rate of CO 2 capture by the mixture is enhanced during the fast carbonation stage of practical interest in applications. Moreover, the residual capture capacity of the mixture is increased. SEM/EDX, physisorption, and XRD analyses indicate that there is a relevant interaction between the nanostructured SiO 2 skeleton and CaO at high temperatures, which serves to improve the efficiency of the transfer of CO 2 to small reactive pores as well as the stability of the sorbent pore structure.
Environmental Science and Technology, 46 (2012) 6401-6408 | DOI: 10.1021/es3002426

Influence of Vanadium or Cobalt Oxides on the CO Oxidation Behavior of Au/MOx/CeO2-Al2O3 Systems

Reina, TR; Moreno, AA; Ivanova, S; Odriozola, JA; Centeno, MA
A series of V2O5- and Co3O4-modified ceria/alumina supports and their corresponding gold catalysts were synthesized and their catalytic activities evaluated in the CO oxidation reaction. V2O5-doped solids demonstrated a poor capacity to abate CO, even lower than that of the original ceria/alumina support, owing to the formation of CeVO4. XRD, Raman spectroscopy, and H2-temperature programmed reduction studies confirmed the presence of this stoichiometric compound, in which cerium was present as Ce3+ and its redox properties were avoided. Co3O4-doped supports showed a high activity in CO oxidation at subambient temperatures. The vanadium oxide-doped gold catalysts were not efficient because of gold particle agglomeration and CeVO4 formation. However, the gold–cobalt oxide–ceria/alumina catalysts demonstrated a high capacity to abate CO at and below room temperature. Total conversion was achieved at −70 °C. The calculated apparent activation energy values revealed a theoretical optimum loading of a half-monolayer.
Chemcatchem, 4 (2012) 512-520 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201100373

Nanoporous silica microparticle interaction with toll-like receptor agonists in macrophages

Cejudo-Guillen, M; Ramiro-Gutierrez, M L; Labrador-Garrido, A; Diaz-Cuenca, A; Pozo, D
Nanoporous silica microparticles (NSiO2-MP) are considered to be potential drug delivery systems and scaffolding platforms in tissue engineering. However, few biocompatibility studies regarding NSiO2-MP interaction with the immune system have been reported. Toll-like receptors (TLR) are involved in host defence as well as autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. The results show that NSiO2-MP up to 100 μg ml−1 do not affect macrophage cell viability after 24 h cell culture. Moreover, NSiO2-MP do not compromise the cell viability of TLR-activated Raw 264.7 cells, for either cell surface TLR (TLR1/TLR2/TLR4/TLR6) or endocytic compartment TLR (TLR3/TLR7/TLR9). Furthermore, Raw 264.7 cells do not respond to NSiO2-MP exposure in terms of IL-6 or IL-10 secretion. NSiO2-MP co-treatment in the presence of TLR ligands does not impair or enhance the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 or the regulatory cytokine IL-10. Thus, NSiO2-MP do not affect macrophage polarization towards a pro-inflammatory or immunosuppressive status, representing added value in terms of biocompatibility compared with other SiO2-based micro- and nanoparticles.
Acta Biomaterialia, 8 (2012) 4295-4303 | DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2012.07.026

Electrochromic Behavior of WxSiyOz Thin Films Prepared by Reactive Magnetron Sputtering at Normal and Glancing Angles

Gil-Rostra, J; Cano, M; Pedrosa, JM; Ferrer, FJ; Garcia-Garcia, F; Yubero, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
This work reports the synthesis at room temperature of transparent and colored WxSiyOz thin films by magnetron sputtering (MS) from a single cathode. The films were characterized by a large set of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and Raman spectroscopies. Their optical properties were determined by the analysis of the transmission and reflection spectra. It was found that both the relative amount of tungsten in the W–Si MS target and the ratio O2/Ar in the plasma gas were critical parameters to control the blue coloration of the films. The long-term stability of the color, attributed to the formation of a high concentration of W5+ and W4+ species, has been related with the formation of W–O–Si bond linkages in an amorphous network. At normal geometry (i.e., substrate surface parallel to the target) the films were rather compact, whereas they were very porous and had less tungsten content when deposited in a glancing angle configuration. In this case, they presented outstanding electrochromic properties characterized by a fast response, a high coloration, a complete reversibility after more than one thousand cycles and a relatively very low refractive index in the bleached state.
ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 4 (2012) 628-638 | DOI: 10.1021/am2014629

Transparent Nanometric Organic Luminescent Films as UV-Active Components in Photonic Structures

Aparicio, FJ; Holgado, M; Borras, A; Blaszczyk-Lezak, I; Griol, A; Barrios, CA; Casquel, R; Sanza, FJ; Sohlstrom, H; Antelius, M; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Barranco, A
A new kind of visible-blind organic thin-film material, consisting of a polymeric matrix with a high concentration of embedded 3-hydroxyflavone (3HF) dye molecules, that absorbs UV light and emits green light is presented. The thin films can be grown on sensitive substrates, including flexible polymers and paper. Their suitability as photonic active components photonic devices is demonstrated.
Advanced Materials, 23 (2011) 761-765 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003088

Selective Dichroic Patterning by Nanosecond Laser Treatment of Ag Nanostripes

Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Toudert, J; Borras, A; Barranco, A; Lahoz, R; de la Fuente, GF; Frutos, F; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
A simple route for the fabrication of dichroic optical structures based on Ag nanoparticles deposited onto SiO2 nanocolumns is presented. The strict control of the optical response is achieved after infrared laser treatment of the supported nanoparticles with a commercial nanosecond pulsed laser. Preliminary examples of the utilization of the laser-treated AgNPs/SiO2 nanocolumn system for optical recoding and encryption are shown.
Advanced Materials, 23 (2011) 848-853 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201003933

Interplay of Resonant Cavity Modes with Localized Surface Plasmons: Optical Absorption Properties of Bragg Stacks Integrating Gold Nanoparticles

Olalla Sánchez-Sobrado, Gabriel Lozano, Mauricio E. Calvo, Ana Sánchez-Iglesias, Luis M. Liz-Marzán, Hernán Míguez
A procedure to prepare porous photonic crystal resonators containing gold nanoparticles is reported. The optical absorption of the ensemble, resulting from the excitation of the localized surface plasmon of the metallic beads, is finely tuned by a gradual shift of the cavity mode. This is achieved by infiltration of the void network with different guest compounds.
Advanced Materials, 23 (2011) 2108-2112 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.201004401

Aligned TiO(2) nanocolumnar layers prepared by PVD-GLAD for transparent dye sensitized solar cells

Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Gonzalez-Valls, I; Lira-Cantu, M; Barranco, A; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Transparent thin film electrodes made of vertically aligned nanocolumns of TiO2 with well-controlled oblique angles were grown by physical vapor deposition at glancing incidence (PVD-GLAD). For an electrode thickness of 500 nm, we report a 40% variation on solar cell efficiency (from 0.6% to 1.04%) when the deposition angle was modified between 60° and 85°. Transparent thicker films with higher surface area deposited at the optimal angle of 70° were grown with a zigzag morphology which confers high mechanical strength to the thin films. Using this topology, the application of an electrode thickness of 3 m in a DSC resulted in a power conversion efficiency of 2.78% maintaining electrode transparency.
Energy and Environmental Science, 4 (2011) 3426-3435 | DOI: 10.1039/C0EE00489H

Porous one dimensional photonic crystals: novel multifunctional materials for environmental and energy applications

Mauricio E. Calvo, Silvia Colodrero, Nuria Hidalgo, Gabriel Lozano, Carmen López-López, Olalla Sánchez-Sobrado and Hernán Míguez
In recent times, several synthetic pathways have been developed to create multilayered materials of diverse composition that combine accessible porosity and optical properties of structural origin, i.e., not related to absorption. These materials possess a refractive index that varies periodically along one direction, which gives rise to optical diffraction effects characteristic of Bragg stacks or one-dimensional photonic crystals (1DPCs). The technological potential of such porous optical materials has been demonstrated in various fields related to energy and environmental sciences, such as detection and recognition of targeted biological or chemical species, photovoltaics, or radiation shielding. In all cases, improved performance is achieved as a result of the added functionality porosity brings. In this review, a unified picture of this emerging field is provided.
Energy and Environmental Science, 4 (2011) 4800-4812 | DOI: 10.1039/C1EE02081A

Porous supramolecularly templated optical resonators built in 1D photonic crystals

Hidalgo, N., Calvo, M.E., Bellino, M.G., Soler-Illia, G.J.A.A., Míguez, H.
A synthetic route to attain photonic multilayers that presents controlled porosity only at the middle-layer level is shown. The spectral resonance associated with this porous layer shows strong sensitivity to the presence of vapors adsorbed or condensed within the void network, providing a potentially relevant material for gas detection. The importance of the interplay between pore and probe-molecule diameters is studied and its implications in size-selective detection are discussed. Controlled porosity: Photonic multilayers that presents controlled porosity only at the middle-layer level are herein introduced. The optical response of the ensemble shows strong sensitivity to the presence of vapors adsorbed or condensed within the void network, providing a potentially relevant material for gas detection.
Advanced Functional Materials, 21 (2011) 2534-2540 | DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201002486

The biophysical design of plant cuticles: an overview

Dominguez, E; Heredia-Guerrero, JA; Heredia, A
The outer surfaces of epidermal cell walls are impregnated with an extracellular matrix called the cuticle. This composite matrix provides several functions at the interface level that enable plants to thrive in different habitats and withstand adverse environmental conditions. The lipid polymer cutin, which is the main constituent of the plant cuticle, has some unique biophysical properties resulting from its composition and structure. This review summarizes the progress made towards understanding the biophysical significance of this biopolymer with special focus on its structural, thermal, biomechanical, and hydric properties and relationships. The physiological relevance of such biophysical properties is discussed in light of existing knowledge on the plant cuticle.
New Phytologist, 189 (2011) 938-949 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03553.x

Surface-functionalized fluorescent silica nanoparticles for the detection of ATP

Moro, AJ; Schmidt, J; Doussineau, T; Lapresta-Fernandez, A; Wegener, J; Mohr, GJ
The design of two-dyed fluorescent silica nanoparticles for ATP detection is presented. The indicator dye possesses a dipicolyl-amine (DPA) unit complexed with Zn(ii) as a receptor function for ATP while a rhodamine derivative is used as the reference dye. The nanoparticles were fully characterized regarding analytical performance, morphology and cytocompatibility.
Chemical Communications, 47 (2011) 6066-6068 | DOI: 10.1039/C1CC10419E

Enhanced gas sensing performance of TiO2 functionalized magneto-optical SPR sensors

M.G. Manera, G. Montagna, E. Ferreiro-Vila, L. González-García, J.R. Sánchez-Valencia, A.R. González-Elipe, A.Cebollada, J.M. Garcia-Martin, A. Garcia-Martin, G. Armelles and R. Rella
Porous TiO2 thin films deposited by glancing angle deposition are used as sensing layers to monitor their sensing capabilities towards Volatile Organic Compounds both in a standard Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensor and in Magneto-Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance (MO-SPR) configuration in order to compare their sensing performances. Here our results on the enhanced sensing capability of these TiO2 functionalized MO-SPR sensors with Au/Co/Au transducers with respect to traditional SPR gas sensors are presented.
Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21 (2011) 16049-16056 | DOI: 10.1039/c1jm11937k

Effect of thermal treatments on the catalytic behaviour in the CO preferential oxidation of a CuO-CeO2-ZrO2 catalyst with a flower-like morphology

Moretti, E; Storaro, L; Talon, A; Lenarda, M; Riello, P; Frattini, R; de Yuso, MDM; Jimenez-Lopez, A; Rodriguez-Castellon, E; Ternero, F; Caballero, A; Holgado, JP
A Ce–Zr–Cu oxide system with a flower-like morphology was prepared by a slow co-precipitation method in the absence of any structure directing agent. Four portions of the oxide were thermally treated at four different temperatures (350 °C, 450 °C, 550 °C, 650 °C). The resulting materials samples were characterized by quantitative XRD, adsorption–desorption of N2 at-196 °C, SEM and TEM microscopy, –H2-TPR, XPS and Operando-XANES. All samples were tested in the preferential CO oxidation (CO-PROX) in the 40–190 °C temperature range. Thermal treatments were found to induce slight structural changes without altering the starting morphology of the samples. The samples treated at higher temperature 550–650 °C showed a quite interesting CO-PROX activity and selectivity in a temperature range suitable for a practical use within the FEMFC technology.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 102 (2011) 627-637 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.01.004

Fe-doped ceria solids synthesized by the microemulsion method for CO oxidation reactions

O.H. Laguna, M.A. Centeno, M. Boutonnet, J.A. Odriozola
A series of Ce-Fe mixed oxides as well as the pure oxides were synthesized by the microemulsions method. The solid solution formation was established for all the Fe-doped systems and only a hardly noticeable segregation of &#945;-Fe2O3 was appreciated for the solid with the maximum iron content (50at.% Fe). The oxygen exchange is improved for all the Fe-doped systems; however the 10at.% Fe appears as the optimal iron content for achieving the maximum oxygen vacancies concentration and the higher reducibility efficiency. The CO oxidation (TOX, PROX) is especially achieved for the solids with the lower iron contents but with a superior oxygen vacancies proportion. These Ce-Fe systems prepared from microemulsions are very attractive to be considered as supports for depositing active phases capable of enhancing oxygen exchange ability of the whole system, allowing higher CO oxidation abilities.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 106 (2011) 621-629 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.06.025

CO oxidation at low temperature on Au/CePO4: Mechanistic aspects

Romero-Sarria, F., Domínguez, M.I., Centeno, M.A., Odriozola, J.A.
This work reports the synthesis and characterization of a cerium phosphate supported gold catalyst as well as its catalytic activity for the oxidation of CO. A precipitation method in the presence of an organic modifier followed by a hydrothermal treatment was used for the support synthesis, resulting in high surface area nanometric particles. Gold/cerium phosphate catalyst with a 1% (w/w) nominal gold content was characterized using XRF, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements, TEM and DRIFTS-MS. The catalyst shows good catalytic activity at low temperature. The activity is related to the generation of oxygen vacancies in the support caused by the elimination of structural oxygen. In situ studies revealed that the reaction of the oxygen vacancies with gaseous oxygen resulted in the formation of peroxo species. These species are responsible for the activity detected at room temperature in both the catalyst and the support. Moreover, the presence of carbonate and hydrogen carbonate acting as reaction intermediates have been observed.
Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, 107 (2011), 268-273 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2011.07.022

Soft plasma processing of organic nanowires: a route for the fabrication of 1D organic heterostructures and the template synthesis of inorganic 1D nanostructures

Maria Alcaire, Juan R. Sanchez-Valencia, Francisco J. Aparicio, Zineb Saghi, Juan C. Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Angel Barranco, Youssef Oulad Zian, Agustin R. Gonzalez-Elipe, Paul Midgley, Juan P. Espinos, Pierangelo Groening and Ana Borras
Hierarchical (branched) and hybrid metal-NPs/organic supported NWs are fabricated through controlled plasma processing of metalloporphyrin, metallophthalocyanine and perylene nanowires. The procedure is also applied for the development of a general template route for the synthesis of supported metal and metal oxide nanowires.
Nanoscale, 3 (2011) 4554-4559 | DOI: 10.1039/C1NR11001B

Tuning from blue to magenta the up-converted emissions of YF3:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystals

Quintanilla, M; Nunez, NO; Cantelar, E; Ocana, M; Cusso, F
Monodisperse YF3:Tm3+/Yb3+ nanocrystals have been synthesized to explore the visible up-converting properties under near infrared (975 nm) excitation. It has been found that the nanoparticles exhibit intense red up-converted emissions, in addition to the characteristic UV and blue Tm3+-bands. It is demonstrated that, by carefully selecting Tm3+ and Yb3+ contents, the relative intensity of the different emissions can be changed producing an overall emission colour that can be tuned from blue to magenta.
Nanoscale, 3 (2011) 1046-1052 | DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00676a

Compositional and Quantitative Microtextural Characterization of Historic Paintings by Micro-X-ray Diffraction and Raman Microscopy

Julia Romero-Pastor, Adrian Duran, Alejandro Basilio Rodríguez-Navarro, René Van Grieken, Carolina Cardell
This work shows the benefits of characterizing historic paintings via compositional and microtextural data from micro-X-ray diffraction (μ-XRD) combined with molecular information acquired with Raman microscopy (RM) along depth profiles in paint stratigraphies. The novel approach was applied to identify inorganic and organic components from paintings placed at the 14th century Islamic University—Madrasah Yusufiyya—in Granada (Spain), the only Islamic University still standing from the time of Al-Andalus (Islamic Spain). The use of μ-XRD to obtain quantitative microtextural information of crystalline phases provided by two-dimensional diffraction patterns to recognize pigments nature and manufacture, and decay processes in complex paint cross sections, has not been reported yet. A simple Nasrid (14th century) palette made of gypsum, vermilion, and azurite mixed with glue was identified in polychromed stuccos. Here also a Christian intervention was found via the use of smalt, barite, hematite, Brunswick green and gold; oil was the binding media employed. On mural paintings and wood ceilings, more complex palettes dated to the 19th century were found, made of gypsum, anhydrite, barite, dolomite, calcite, lead white, hematite, minium, synthetic ultramarine blue, and black carbon. The identified binders were glue, egg yolk, and oil.
Analytical Chemistry, 83 (2011) 8420-8428 | DOI: 10.1021/ac201159e

Modifying the Size of Nickel Metallic Particles by H2/CO Treatment in Ni/ZrO2 Methane Dry Reforming Catalysts

Gonzalez-Delacruz, VM; Pereñiguez, R; Ternero, F; Holgado, JP; Caballero, A
The effect of a reduction process with CO or H-2 on the Size of nickel particles in Ni/ZrO2 dry methane reforming catalysts have been studied by means of in situ X-ray Spectroscopy (XAS) and Diffuse Reflectance FTIR Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). Our results clearly indicate that a high temperature treatment with CO increases the dispersion of the nickel metallic phase. XAS results have shown a lower coordination number of Ni in the sample treated with CO than that reduced with H-2. From the DRIFTS results, it can he established that, under the CO treatment, the formation of Ni(CO)(4) complexes corrodes the nickel particles, decreasing their size. The formation of these gas molecules occurs without measurable losses of nickel from the catalyst which maintains the same nickel content after the hydrogen or the CO treatment at high temperature:Therefore, this airborne nickel compound, by colliding with the zirconia surface, must deposit the nickel metal metal atoms around onto the support. This behavior is evidence of an important interaction b etween nickel and zirconia surface as unlike other supports there is no losses of nickel during the dispersion process on zirconia. Although different effects of CO on nickel catalysts have been previously described, we have found for the first time several experimental evidences demonstrating the whole redispersion phenomenon.
ACS Catalysis, 1 (2011) 82-88 | DOI: 10.1021/cs100116m

Boron Compounds as Stabilizers of a Complex Microstructure in a Co-B-based Catalyst for NaBH4 Hydrolysis

Arzac, G.M., Rojas, T.C., Fernández, A.
Co-B-based materials are widely used as catalysts for hydrogen generation through sodium borohydride self-decomposition. In the mid 1990s, the aqueous and organic chemistry involved in Co-B synthesis and handling was studied. Nevertheless, the exact microstructure of these catalysts has remained unsolved. Herein we present an exhaustive study which shows a new and complete microstructural view of a Co-B-based material together with the chemistry of the cobalt and boron involved. By using nanoscale-resolution microscopy and spectroscopy techniques, we have elucidated the role of boron compounds as stabilizers in a complex microstructure, which also explains its high catalytic performance and long-term stability. The catalyst is proposed to be made up of 1-3nm hcp Co0 nanoparticles embedded in amorphous CoxB (x=1, 2, 3), CoxOy, Co(BO2)2, and B2O3 phases alternatively or all together. All of these amorphous phases protect the nanocrystalline metallic core from growth and oxidation.
ChemCatChem, 3 (2011) 1305-1313 | DOI: 10.1002/cctc.201100101

Structural elucidation of Β-(Y,Sc)2Si2O 7: Combined use of 89Y MAS NMR and powder diffraction

Allix, M., Alba, M.D., Florian, P., Fernandez-Carrion, A.J., Suchomel, M.R., Escudero, A., Suard, E., Becerro, A.I.
Although the structures of pure Sc2Si2O7 and &#914;-Y2Si 2O7 have been described in the literature using the C2/m space group, 29Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR measurements of the intermediate members of the Sc2Si2O7-&#914;- Y2Si2O7 system indicate a lowering of the symmetry to the C2 space group. Indeed, these compositions exhibit a unique Si crystallographic site and an Si-O-Si angle lower than 180°, incompatible with the C2/m space group. C2 is the only possible alternative. Space group Cm can be discarded with regard to its two different Si sites per unit cell. Moreover, 89Y MAS NMR data have revealed the existence of two different Y sites in the structure of the intermediate members of the Sc 2Si2O7-&#914;-Y2Si2O 7 system, confirming the lowering of the symmetry to the C2 space group. The viability of the C2 model has therefore been tested and confirmed by refinement of synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction data for the different members of the system. The structural evolutions across the Sc 2Si2O7-&#914;-Y2Si2O 7 system are discussed.
Journal of Applied Crystallography, 44 (2011) 846-852 | DOI: 10.1107/S0021889811021303

Room-Temperature Reaction of Oxygen with Gold: An In situ Ambient-Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Investigation

Jiang, P; Porsgaard, S; Borondics, F; Kober, M; Caballero, A; Bluhm, H; Besenbacher, F; Salmeron, M
The interaction of O-2 with gold foil and gold nanoparticles grown by thermal deposition on TiO2(110) was studied by in situ ambient pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at room temperature. No spontaneous dissociation of O-2 was observed either on Au foil or oil Au nanoparticles up to 1 Torr of O-2. X-ray irradiation, however, is very effective in promoting gold oxidation on both surfaces in the presence of O-2. Our results help reconcile recent conflicting experimental observations regarding the activation of molecular oxygen, which is a crucial issue in Au catalyzed oxidation reactions.
Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132 (2010) 2858-2859 | DOI: 10.1021/ja909987j

Gallium Arsenide Infiltration of Nanoporous Multi layers: A Route to High-Dielectric-Contrast One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

Sanchez-Sobrado, O; Thomas, K; Povey, I; Pemble, ME; Miguez, H
Periodic multilayers of wide photonic bandgap and high reflectance in the visible and near infrared regions are fabricated. Optical properties show that reflectance intensities close to 90% are reached for stacks of only six layers, as well as gap-to-midgap ratios of 50%. The optical response of the hybrid ensemble can be accurately tuned through the number of infiltration cycles performed.
Small, 6 (2010) 1283-1287 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200902190

Conformal Growth of Organic Luminescent Planar Defects within Artificial Opals

Aparicio, FJ; Lozano, G; Blaszczyk-Lezak, I; Barranco, A; Miguez, H
Herein, we present the result of combining, for the first time, the techniques of colloidal self-assembly and plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to create a novel, high-quality, purely Organic active photonic crystal structure of controlled optical properties. We show a fast. reliable, and accurate procedure to introduce two-dimensional luminescent organic defect layers within artificial polystyrene opals via a versatile room-temperature remote plasma deposition process. This method is gentle enough to allow highly coil formal growth on polystyrene microspheres without altering their morphology or the ordered arrangement that they form. The luminescent organic layer behaves both as all optical dopant, causing the opening of transmission windows within the forbidden frequency interval of the lattice, and as an optically active material, whose emission call be tailored by the photonic environment.
Chemistry of Materials, 22 (2010) 379-385 | DOI: 10.1021/cm902819x

Flexible, Adhesive, and Biocompatible Bragg Mirrors Based on Polydimethylsiloxane Infiltrated Nanoparticle Multilayers

Calvo, ME, Miguez, H
Herein we present a series of self-standing, flexible, and biocompatible optical interference filters obtained through infiltration and polymerization of an elastomer (polydimethylsiloxane) in a porous Bragg mirror prepared by alternating deposition of layers of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles. The method proposed yields the uniform filling of the nanopores of the multilayer by the polymer, which allows lifting off the hybrid structure as long as the ensemble is cooled to temperatures below the glass transition of the polymer. This multifunctional material combines the optical properties of the periodic nanoporous multilayer and the structural and physicochemical characteristics of polydimethylsiloxane. Experimental demonstrations of their potential use as flexible and adhesive UV-protecting filters, as well as of light, highly-efficient conformal back reflectors to enhance the efficiency of photovoltaic devices are provided.
Chemistry of Materials, 22 (2010) 3909-3915 | DOI: 10.1021/cm1001016

Quantitative Characterization of Multicomponent Polymers by Sample-Controlled Thermal Analysis

Sanchez-Jimenez, PE; Perez-Maqueda, LA; Crespo-Amoros, JE; Lopez, J; Perejon, A; Criado, JM
This paper explores the potential of sample-controlled thermal analysis (SCTA) in order to perform compositional analysis of multicomponent polymeric materials by means of thermogravimetric experiments. In SCTA experiments, the response of the sample to the temperature determines the evolution of the temperature by means of a feedback system; thus, what is controlled is not the temperature time profile, as in conventional analysis, but rather the evolution of the reaction rate with time. The higher resolving power provided by the technique has been used for determining the composition of polymer blends composed of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and different commercial plasticizers, a system where the individual components have very similar thermal stabilities, thereby rendering useless thermogravimetric experiments run under conventional conditions. Different SCTA procedures, such as constant rate thermal analysis (CRTA), which has received special attention, and high-resolution and stepwise isothermal analysis have been tested, and the results obtained have been compared with linear heating rate technique. It has been proven that CRTA can be used to effectively determine the exact composition of the blend.
Analytical Chemistry, 82 (2010) 8875-8880 | DOI: 10.1021/ac101651g

Excitation transfer mechanism along the visible to the Near-IR in rhodamine J-heteroaggregates

Sanchez-Valencia, JR; Toudert, J; Gonzalez-Garcia, L; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR; Barranco, A
An enhanced fluorescent emission of the dye Rhodamine 800 in the Near-IR is observed in the presence of other xanthene dye molecules (RhX) when they are hosted in different matrices due to the formation of a new type of fluorescent J-heteroaggregates. This enhanced emission of the acceptor occurs despite the low spectral overlapping and the low quantum yield of Rh800.
Chemical Communications, 46 (2010) 4372-4374 | DOI: 10.1039/c0cc00087f

In situ spectroscopic detection of SMSI effect in a Ni/CeO2 system: hydrogen-induced burial and dig out of metallic nickel

Caballero, A; Holgado, JP; Gonzalez-delaCruz, VM; Habas, SE; Herranz, T; Salmeron, M
In situ APPES technique demonstrates that the strong metal support interaction effect (SMSI) in the Ni-ceria system is associated with the decoration and burial of metallic particles by the partially reduced support, a phenomenon reversible by evacuation at high temperature of the previously absorbed hydrogen.
Chemical Communications, 46 (2010) 1097-1099 | DOI: 10.1039/b920803h

Sunlight highly photoactive Bi2WO6-TiO2 heterostructures for rhodamine B degradation

Colon, G; Lopez, SM; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA
Highly efficient Bi2WO6-TiO2 heterostructures are synthesized by means of a hydrothermal method; they have high photoactivity for the degradation of rhodamine B under sunlike irradiation. An interesting synergetic effect between TiO2 and Bi2WO6 leads to an improved charge carrier separation mechanism, causing the excellent photocatalytic performance.
Chemical Communications, 46 (2010) 4809-4811 | DOI: 10.1039/c0cc00058b

Gold supported on metal-doped ceria catalysts (M = Zr, Zn and Fe) for the preferential oxidation of CO (PROX)

Laguna, OH; Sarria, FR; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
A series of ceria oxides doped with 10 mol % of Zr Zn and Fe have been prepared by a pseudo sol-gel method throughout the thermal decomposition of the corresponding metallic propionates With these supports 1 wt % gold catalysts were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method All the solids were characterized by means of XRF N-2 adsorption XRD Raman spectroscopy and SEM techniques and their catalytic activity toward preferential oxidation of CO (PROX) reaction tested The results showed solid solution when doping with Zr and Fe and ZnO surface segregation in the case of Zn We demonstrate that gold dispersion depends on not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the nature of the doping agent Finally the catalytic activity was highly promoted by gold in all cases being the doped gold catalysts more active than Au/CeO2 at low temperature.
Journal of Catalysis, 276 (2010) 360-370 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2010.09.027

Improved Non-Covalent Biofunctionalization of Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Using Carbohydrate Amphiphiles with a Butterfly-Like Polyaromatic Tail

Assali, M; Leal, MP; Fernandez, I; Romero-Gomez, P; Baati, R; Khiar, N
We have developed an efficient strategy for the non-covalent functionalization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) which allows a biomimetic presentation of carbohydrates on their surface by pi-pi stacking interactions. The strategy is based on the use of sugar-based amphiphiles functionalized with tetrabenzo[a,c,g,i] fluorene (Tbf), a polyaromatic compound with a topology that resembles a butterfly with open wings. The new carbohydrate-tethered Tbf amphiphiles have been synthesized in a straightforward manner using click chemistry. The reported method has been developed in order to improve the rather low ability of pyrene-based systems to exfoliate MWCNTs in water. By means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), ultraviolet (UV), infrared (IR), and fluorescence spectroscopies the interaction between MWCNTs and the Tbf group has been found to be stronger than those involving pyrene-based amphiphilic carbohydrates. The resulting aggregates with a multivalent sugar exposition on their surface are able to engage in specific ligand-lectin interactions similar to glycoconjugates on a cell membrane.
Nano Research, 3 (2010) 764-778 | DOI: 10.1007/s12274-010-0044-2

Fabrication of ordered crystalline zirconium nanoporous membranes by an one-step procedure

Marquez, F; Morant, C; Pirota, KR; Borras, A; Sanz, JM; Elizalde, E
Crystalline porous zirconium membranes were obtained by physical vapor deposition on AAO templates at room temperature. These membranes were found to have similar hexagonal nanohole arrays as the template and high crystallinity. The pore size of the synthesized metallic membranes could be controlled during the synthesis through appropriate parameters in the experimental procedure.
Nano Today, 4 (2009) 21-26 | DOI: 10.1016/j.nantod.2008.10.012

Porous One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals Improve the Power-Conversion Efficiency of Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

Colodrero, S; Mihi, A; Haggman, L; Ocana, M; Boschloo, G; Hagfeldt, A; Miguez, H
A device for solar-energy conversion was introduced in which a porous and highly reflecting 1D photonic crystal (1D PC) was coupled to a dye-sensitized nanocrystals anatase (NC-TiO2) electrode. The results show that the transparency of the PC-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum is very similar to that of the reference cell. The multilayer whose photonic bandgap has a larger overlap with the absorption band of the ruthenium dye, gives rise to a larger enhancement of the photocurrent. It is also seen that the porous 0.5μm thick PC, whose deleterious effect is compensated by the large increment in photocurrent. The spectral photoelectric response of the cell clearly shows the effect that coupling to a PC has on the current photogenerated in the dye-sensitized electrode.
Advanced Materials, 21 (2009) 764-770 | DOI: 10.1002/adma.200703115

Mesostructured Thin Films as Responsive Optical Coatings of Photonic Crystals

Hidalgo, N; Calvo, ME; Miguez, H
A synthetic route is presented to attain high-optical-quality multilayered structures that residtfront coupling ordered n7esoporous tilaniuni oxide thin films to the surface of a dense one-dimensional photonic crystal. Such architectures present spectrally well-defined photon resonant modes localized in the outer coating that finely respond to physicochemically induced modifications of its pore volume. The potential of these porous coatings in detection of environmental changes through variations of the photonic response of the ensemble is demonstrated by performing isothermal optical reflectance measurements under controlled vapor-pressure conditions.
Small, 5 (2009) 2309-2315 | DOI: 10.1002/smll.200900411

Hybrid catalytic-DBD plasma reactor for the production of hydrogen and preferential CO oxidation (CO-PROX) at reduced temperatures

Rico, VJ; Hueso, JL; Cotrino, J; Gallardo, V; Sarmiento, B; Brey, JJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Dielectric Barrier Discharges (DBD) operated at atmospheric pressure and working at reduced temperatures (T < 115 °C) and a copper–manganese oxide catalyst are combined for the direct decomposition and the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) for hydrogen production and for the preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX)
Chemical Communications, 41 (2009) 6192-6194 | DOI: 10.1039/b909488a

Self-Assembling of Er2O3-TiO2 Mixed Oxide Nanoplatelets by a Template-Free Solvothermal Route

Julian-Lopez, B; Martos, M; Ulldemolins, N; Odriozola, JA; Cordoncillo, E; Escribano, P
An easy solvothermal route has been developed to synthesize the first mesoporous Er2O3-TiO2 mixed oxide spherical particles composed of crystalline nanoplatelets, with high surface area and narrow pore size distribution. This synthetic strategy allows the preparation of materials at low temperature with interesting textural properties without the use of surfactants, as well as the control of particle size and shape. TEM and Raman analysis confirm the formation of nanocrystalline Er2O 3-TiO2 mixed oxide. Mesoscopic ordered porosity is reached through the thermal decomposition of organic moieties during the synthetic process, thus leading to a template-free methodology that can be extended to other nanostructured materials. High specific surface areas (up to 313 m 2g-1) and narrow pore size distributions are achieved in comparison to the micrometric material synthesized by the traditional sol-gel route. This study opens new perspectives in the development, by solvothermal methodologies, of multifunctional materials for advanced applications by improving the classical pyrochlore properties (magnetization, heat capacity, catalysis, conductivity, etc.). In particular, since catalytic reactions take place on the surface of catalysts, the high surface area of these materials makes them promising candidates for catalysts. Furthermore, their spherical morphology makes them appropriate for advanced technologies in, for instance, ceramic inkjet printers.
Chemistry-A European Journal, 15 (2009) 12426-12434 | DOI: 10.1002/chem.200901423

CO-TPR-DRIFTS-MS in situ study of CuO/Ce 1-xTbxO 2-y (x = 0, 0.2 and 0.5) catalysts: Support effects on redox properties and CO oxidation catalysis

Hornes, A; Bera, P; Camara, AL; Gamarra, D; Munuera, G; Martinez-Arias, A
Catalysts of copper oxide supported on CeO2 and Ce1−xTbxO2−y have been studied by temperature-programmed reduction employing CO as a reductant (CO-TPR) using a diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) cell as well as conventional tubular reactors in order to get insights into redox changes occurring in the course of interaction of the systems with CO. CO-TPR results collected in the classical way, i.e. starting the temperature ramp after reactant gas equilibration at room temperature, suggest that the reduction of the copper species occurs at temperatures which decrease with the terbium content of the support. However, such result contrasts with CO oxidation activity of the systems under CO-PROX condition which follows just the opposite trend. DRIFTS results and analysis of low temperature redox processes, typically disregarded during recording of classical TPR tests, show that catalytic activity can be correlated to the magnitude of reduction achieved already at room temperature, which is related to reduction of interfacial copper oxide species.
Journal of Catalysis, 268 (2009) 367-375 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jcat.2009.10.007

Manganese and iron oxides as combustion catalysts of volatile organic compounds

Duran, FG; Barbero, BP; Cadus, LE; Rojas, C; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
FeMn mixed oxides were prepared by the citrate method with Fe:Mn atomic ratio equal to 1:1, 1:3 and 3:1. The sample was characterized by means of specific surface area measurements, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), temperature programmed desorption of oxygen (O2-DTP), temperature programmed reduction (TPR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), transmission electron microscopy (TEM and SAED) and high resolution TEM (HREM). The characterization results demonstrated the formation of a Mn2O3–Fe2O3 solid solution. The catalytic performance in ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene total oxidation on these samples was better than on Fe2O3 and Mn2O3 pure oxides.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 92 (2009) 194-201 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.07.010

Gold/hydroxyapatite catalysts: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity to CO oxidation

Dominguez, MI; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This work reports the synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity for CO oxidation of gold catalysts supported on calcium hydroxyapatite. On both, the hydroxyapatite support and the gold-supported hydroxyapatite catalyst, the CO conversion shows a peak near 100% of conversion at room temperature. The generation of structural vacancies by interaction of CO with the solid provokes the formation of peroxide species in the presence of gaseous oxygen, which seems to be responsible of this high conversion of CO at room temperature. Moreover, the influence of the pre-treatment temperature on the activity has been observed and related with the elimination of carbonate species and the generation of structural defects in the apatite structure, which are able to modify the gold oxidation state.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 87 (2009) 245-251 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.09.016

FTIR study of photocatalytic degradation of 2-propanol in gas phase with different TiO2 catalysts

Arana, J; Alonso, AP; Rodriguez, JMD; Colon, G; Navio, JA; Pena, JP
The photocatalytic efficiency of different TiO 2 catalysts in the degradation of 2-propanol in gas phase has been studied. The obtained efficiencies have been compared considering the distribution of rutile-anatase phases, surface area, particle size, distribution of surface hydroxyl groups and Brönsted or Lewis acid centres. The catalysts used were Degussa-P25 (TiO 2-P25), Hombikat, Millennium, Kemira and s/g-TiO 2, a catalyst prepared by a sol-gel method. The best photocatalytic behaviours have been obtained with those catalysts with higher surface area and the presence of only anatase phase (Hombikat and Millennium). A progressive deactivation of TiO 2-P25 and s/g-TiO 2 has been observed during the photocatalytic process. FTIR studies indicated that degradation mechanisms depended on the catalyst employed. Deactivation processes observed in TiO 2-P25 have been correlated with the formation of carboxylates.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 89 (2009) 204-213 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2008.11.027

Ionic liquid templated TiO2 nanoparticles as a support in gold environmental catalysis

Avellaneda, RS; Ivanova, S; Sanz, O; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
This work presents the synthesis of a nanostructured titania support and its subsequent utilization for the gold particles deposition and application in the reaction of the CO oxidation. A functionalized ionic liquid has been used as a templating agent for the titanium oxide synthesis resulting in a high specific surface nanostructured titania anatase. The as prepared support was then used for gold nanoparticles deposition without ionic liquid removal in order to study the possible role of the latter in the stabilization of the gold particles. The presence of ionic liquid in the catalysts results in an unusual catalytic behaviour—strong dependence on the presence of CO and changed kinetics and rate of oxidation.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 93 (2009) 140-148 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.09.023

Influence of sulfur on the structural, surface properties and photocatalytic activity of sulfated TiO2

Colon, G; Hidalgo, MC; Navio, JA; Kubacka, A; Fernandez-Garcia, M
TiO2 materials were prepared by sol–gel method and then impregnated with sulfuric acid and calcined using different temperatures and atmosphere (air and nitrogen). Systematic variation of these two experimental parameters makes possible to modulate the amount of surface sulfur from the impregnation procedure. The best photocatalyst for liquid phenol degradation was obtained after calcination at 700 °C in air, while gas toluene degradation optimum performance is obtained by calcination at 700 °C in nitrogen from 500 °C. Structural analysis of these materials by XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy and FE-SEM shows that once calcined at 700 °C the material was a well-crystallized, high surface area anatase structure in all cases. The surface characterization by FTIR and XPS confirms the presence of a higher amount of sulfur species and acidic OH groups in samples partially calcined in nitrogen, and a low XPS O/Ti-atomic ratio with the O 1s peak shifted to higher binding energies (1.8 vs. 2 ± 0.1 and 530.4 eV vs. 529.8 eV, respectively, against the reference materials) for samples calcined at 700 °C, temperature at which most of sulfate species have been evolved. The paper presents an attempt to correlate the contribution of the observed structural defects within the anatase sub-surface layers and surface acidity to the different photoactivity behaviour exhibited for phenol liquid phase and toluene gas phase photodegradation.
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 90 (2009) 633-641 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2009.04.026

 

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