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New concept for old reaction: Novel WGS catalyst design

Garcia-Moncada, N; Gonzalez-Castano, M; Ivanova, S; Centeno, MA; Romero-Sarria, F; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis A-General, 238 (2018) 1-5


The viability of water gas shift catalytic system for mobile application passes through obligatory reactor volume reduction, achieved normally by using less charge of more efficient catalyst. Completely new concept for catalyst design is proposed: a catalytic system including classically reported WGS catalysts of different nature or active phase (Cu, Pt or Au) mechanically mixed with an ionic conductor. The influence of the later on catalyst activity is studied and discussed, more precisely its effect on the rate of the reaction-limiting step and catalysts' efficiency. It is demonstrated with this study, that the presence of an ionic conductor in contact with a WGS catalyst is essential for the water supply (dissociation and transport), thereby potentiating the water activation step, whatever the mechanism and catalyst overall performance.

Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.06.068

CO/H-2 adsorption on a Ru/Al2O3 model catalyst for Fischer Trospch: Effect of water concentration on the surface species

Jimenez-Barrera, E; Bazin, P; Lopez-Cartes, C; Romero-Sarria, F; Daturi, M; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 237 (2018) 986-995


Water presence and concentration strongly influence CO conversion and CS+ selectivity in the Fischer Tropsch reaction. In this work, the influence of the water concentration was investigated using a model Ru/Al2O3 (5 wt. %) catalyst. The surface species formed after CO and H-2 adsorption in dry and wet (different water concentrations) conditions were analyzed by FTIR. Firstly, water adsorption was carried out up to complete filling of the pores and then CO was put in contact with the catalyst. The absence of adsorbed CO species in these conditions evidences that CO diffusion in water controls the access of the gas to the active sites and explains the negative effect of high water concentrations reported by some authors. Moreover, the adsorption of a mixture of CO + H-2 + H2O, being the water concentration close to that needed to have a monolayer, and a dry mixture of CO + H-2 were carried out and compared. Results evidence that water in this low concentration, is able to gasify the surface carbon species formed by CO dissociation on the metallic sites. This cleaning effect is related to the positive effect of water on CO conversion detected by some authors.

Diciembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.06.053

Selective CO methanation with structured RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts

Munoz-Murillo, A; Martinez, LM; Dominguez, MI; Odriozola, JA; Centeno, MA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 236 (2018) 420-427


Active and selective structured RuO2/Al2O3 catalysts for CO methanation using a flow simulating CO2-rich reformate gases from WGS and PROX units (H-2 excess, CO2 presence and 300 ppm CO concentration) were prepared. Both, the RuO2/Al2O3 powder and the slurry prepared from it for its structuration by washcoating of the metallic micromonolithic structure, were also active and selective. Both the slurry (S-RuAl) and micro monoliths (M-RuAl) were able to completely and selectively methanate CO at much lower temperatures than the parent RuAI powder. The optimal working temperature in which the CO conversion is maximum and the CO2 conversion is minimized was determined to be from 149 degrees C to 239 degrees C for S-RuAl and from 165 degrees C to 232 degrees C for M-RuAl, whilst it was from 217 degrees C to 226 degrees C for RuAI powder. TPR, XRD and TEM measurements confirmed that the changes in the activity and selectivity for CO methanation among the considered catalysts can be related with modifications in the surface particle size of ruthenium and its reducibility. These were ascribed to the metallic substrate, the presence of PVA and colloidal alumina in the slurry preparation, the aqueous and acidic media and the thermal treatment used, resulting in a more active and selective catalysts than the parent powder.

Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.05.020

Exotic grain growth law in twinned boron carbide under electric fields

Moshtaghioun, BM; Gomez-Garcia, D; Rodriguez, AD
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38 (2018) 4590-4596


Grain growth is a ubiquitous phenomenon in all materials, and it affects both structural and functional properties. Despite its intrinsic importance, a full comprehension of grain growth from a fundamental point of view-i.e., from the nanoscale to the macroscale-is still a pending issue. In practical terms, our knowledge relies on the classical kinetic laws reported sixty years ago. 

This paper reports the violation of such classical laws in boron carbide ceramics consolidated by spark plasma sintering. The conjunction of high temperature gradients with large compressive stress when a pulse electric current passes through the ceramic powders gives rise to an intense twinning-detwinning formation. These forming steps at the grain boundaries change the grain mobility drastically. Therefore, a new 'exotic' law for grain-growth kinetics is found and validated at different temperatures and dwell times.

Noviembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.06.029

Photocatalytic H2 production from glycerol aqueous solutions over fluorinated Pt-TiO2 with high {001} facet exposure

V. Vaiano; M.A. Lara; G. Iervolino; M. Matarangolo; J.A. Navío; M.C. Hidalgo
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A-Chemistry, 365 (2018) 52-59


An optimized fluorinated TiO2 catalyst with high {001} facet exposure loaded with platinum (TiO2-PtFAC) was tested in the photocatalytic hydrogen production from glycerol solution under UV light irradiation. The samples were synthesized by direct hydrothermal treatment starting from two different types of precursors that are titanium tetraisopropoxide (I) or titanium butoxide (B), while platinisation was performed by photodeposition method. The obtained catalysts were characterised by different techniques (XRD, FESEM, TEM, BET, UV–vis DRS, XRF and XPS) and the results evidenced that anatase is the only crystalline phase present in all TiO2 samples. The morphology of the samples was seen as rectangular platelets particles where Pt particles were was observed all over the surface. The presence of Pt and F in the platinised samples was also confirmed by XRF and XPS analysis. The photocatalytic results have shown that the presence of Pt on TiO2{001}facet surface remarkably enhanced the hydrogen production from aqueous solution at 5 wt % of glycerol. Comparing the results obtained from the photocatalysts prepared by the two different precursors, it was found that the best performances in terms of H2 production was achieved with TiO2-PtFAC(I) (about 13 mmol L−1 after 4 h of irradiation time), while the H2 production was lower for TiO2-PtFAC(B) (about 9 mmol L−1 after 4 h of irradiation time). The effect of the operating conditions using TiO2-PtFAC(I) evidenced that the highest H2 production was obtained with a photocatalyst dosage equal to 1.5 g L−1, initial glycerol concentration at 5 wt% and a pH value equal to 7. Finally, a photocatalytic test was also performed on glycerol solution prepared with a real water matrix. Despite the presence of ions scavengers (chlorides and carbonates) in solution, TiO2-PtFAC(I) was able to reach a photocatalytic H2production of about 6 mmol L−1 after 4 h of UV light irradiation.

Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jphotochem.2018.07.032

Biomass fly ash and aluminium industry slags-based geopolymers

Perez-Villarejo, L; Bonet-Martinez, E; Eliche-Quesada, D; Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Rincon-Lopez, JM; Castro-Galiano, E
Materials Letters, 229 (2018) 6-12


Geopolymers are a new class of non-Portland cements produced using an alumino-silicate material and an activating solution, which is mainly composed of sodium or potassium and waterglass to be subsequently cured at relatively low temperatures. Those can be formulated by adding natural minerals, waste and/or industrial by-products. The study investigates the microstructural properties of geopolymers synthesized from metakaolin (MK) and the admixture of fly ash (FBA) and aluminium industry slags (AIS) at different ages of curing. Five different geopolymer compositions were prepared and characterized by XRD, ATR-FTIR and SEM/EDS. The study revealed that geopolymeric gels are identified, which show mainly glassy microstructures, in agreement with the X-ray amorphous diffraction patterns, broad FTIR features and confirmed by SEM/EDS, with promising results prior to an industrial scale.

Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2018.06.100

Manufacture of sustainable clay ceramic composite with composition SiO2-Al2O3-CaO-K2O materials valuing biomass ash from olive pomace

Bonet-Martinez, E; Perez-Villarejo, L; Eliche-Quesada, D; Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Carrasco-Hurtado, B; Castro-Galiano, E
Materials Letters, 229 (2018) 21-25


Fly ash is a biomass combustion by-product produced by dragging ash from the base of the furnace. Disposing of ash is a growing economic and environmental burden. Based on physical and chemical properties, fly ash could be used in the manufacture of construction materials. This paper investigates the influence of biomass fly ash from olive pomace as additive to manufacture of clay ceramic composite materials. Fired clay brick at 950 degrees C were prepared containing between 0 and 25 wt% fly ash. Final products are studied by water absorption, bulk density, loss of ignition, linear shrinkage, compressive strength and physisorption N-2. The results reveal that the porosity of the materials increases with the level of fly ash replacement (10% up to 25 wt%) resulting in to increased water absorption and decreased compressive strength. Fired clay brick developed in this study can be used for construction materials based on criteria of the current regulations. 

Octubre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2018.06.105

A direct in situ observation of water-enhanced proton conductivity of Eu-doped ZrO2: Effect on WGS reaction

Garcia-Moncada, N; Bobadilla, LF; Poyato, R; Lopez-Cartes, C; Romero-Sarria, F; Centeno, MA; Odriozola, JA
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 231 (2018) 343-356


Eu-doped ZrO2 solid solutions have been synthesized in order to prepare proton conductors as water-enhancer additives for the WGS reaction. Elemental characterization has been carried out revealing homogeneous dopant distribution resulting in fluorite-type solid solutions for Eu2O3 contents up to similar to 9 mol.%. Representative samples of the Eu-doped ZrO2 series have been analysed by Impedance Spectroscopy (IS) in inert, oxygen and wet conditions. The solid solution with 5 mol.% of Eu2O3 has presented the highest conductivity values for all tested conditions indicating an optimal amount of dopant. Moreover, the presence of vapour pressure results in an increment of the conductivity at temperatures lower than 300 degrees C, meanwhile at higher temperatures the conductivity is the same than that in inert conditions. To elucidate these results, in situ DRIFTS studies were carried out. These experiments evidenced the existence of water dissociation at oxygen vacancies (band at 3724 cm(-1)) as well as the presence of physisorbed water at temperatures up to similar to 300 degrees C where the band at 5248 cm(-1) characteristic of these species disappeared. These results points to a layer model where the physisorbed water interacts with surface hydroxyls generated by dissociated water that improves the proton conductivity through Grotthuss' mechanism in the RT-300 degrees C temperature range. These samples were successfully tested in WGS reaction as additive to a typical Pt-based catalyst. The presence of the mixed oxide reveals an increase of the catalyst' activity assisted by the proton conductor, since improves the water activation step.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.03.001

A comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the synthesis of advanced adsorbent materials

Osuna, FJ; Cota, A; Pavon, E; Alba, MD
Journal of Cleaner Production, 194 (2018) 665-672


Na-Mica-4, a synthetic fluorophlogopite, is an attractive adsorbent. However, the synthesis at large scale demands an economically prized, feasible scalable and sustainable synthesis method, which requires a deep knowledge of the influence of each synthesis step. A set of Na-Mica-4 were synthesized by methods that had one synthesis parameter as variable. The purity, crystallinity and heteroatoms distribution were analysed thorough X-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic resonance. The results shed a light on the main factors for the design of the final product and indicated that an environmental friendship synthesis could be possible. 

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.179

Performance improvement in olive stone's combustion from a previous carbonization transformation

Gomez-Martin, A; Chacartegui, R; Ramirez-Rico, J; Martinez-Fernandez, J
Fuel, 228 (2018) 254-262


Under the framework of circular economy, agricultural wastes are an interesting carbon-based feedstock for thermal energy and power generation. Their use could extend the availability of biomass-based fuel and, at the same time, would reduce negative environmental effects. However, depending on the residues' characteristics, their direct combustion in boilers presents some challenges which could be overcome with a carbonization pretreatment. In this paper, the main mechanisms of thermochemical transformation of an abundant agricultural waste, olive stone, into biochar products via slow carbonization are analyzed, with emphasis on the effect of peak carbonization temperature. Thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry analysis are used to evaluate the performance of the resulting biochars compared to raw olive stone in combustion processes and to assess the correlation between the peak carbonization temperature and compositional and fuel properties. Results show that with a prior treatment up to an optimum temperature of 800 degrees C the energy density is increased up to three times compared to the raw material. These findings suggest that carbonization of olive stones reduces the barriers to their direct use in current biomass boiler technology.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2018.04.127

Sensing and biosensing with screen printed electrodes modified with nanostructured nickel oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering at oblique angles

Salazar, P; Garcia-Garcia, FJ; Gonzalez-Elipe, AR
Electrochemistry Communications, 94 (2018) 5-8


This work reports about the sensing and biosensing applications of a novel screen printed electrode (SPE) modified by nanostructured nickel oxide thin films obtained by reactive magnetron sputtering under an oblique angle configuration. Using these films as electrodes we demonstrate their ability to detect hydrogen peroxide under neutral pH conditions. Furthermore, as a proof-of-concept, NiO-modified SPEs have been developed and their cholesterol biosensing properties determined by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.elecom.2018.07.020

ZnO and Pt-ZnO photocatalysts: Characterization and photocatalytic activity assessing by means of three substrates

Jaramillo, C; Navio, J.A.; Hidalgo, M.C.; Macías, M.
Catalysis Today, 313 (2018) 12-19


ZnO nanoparticles have been previously synthesized by a facile precipitation procedure by mixing aqueous solutions of Zn(II) acetate and dissolved Na2CO3 at pH ca. 7.0 without the addition of a template. The as-prepared ZnO material was anealed at 400 °C in air for 2 h. The Pt-ZnO catalysts (0.5 or 1.0 Pt wt.%) were obtained by photochemical deposition method on the surface of the prepared ZnO sample, using hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6). It has been shown that Zn2+ is lost from the photocatalyst to the medium and a replacement of the cationic vacancies of Zn2+ by Pt4+ cations occurs during the platinization process of the ZnO samples, regardless of whether the platinum metal photodeposition process. The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, FE-SEM, TEM, XPS and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Three different probe molecules were used to evaluate the photocatalytic properties under UV-illumination: Methyl Orange and Rhodamine B were chosen as dye substrates and Phenol as a transparent substrate. High conversion values (ca. 100%) and a total organic carbon (TOC) removal of 90–96%, were obtained over these photocatalysts after 160 min of UV illumination. In general, it was observed that the presence of Pt on ZnO affects the lattice parameters and the crystallite size. Although ZnO can completely degrade RhB, MO and Phenol totally in ca. 60 min, the process is more efficient for Pt–ZnO photocatalysts.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.cattod.2017.12.009

Graphene or carbon nanofiber-reinforced zirconia composites: Are they really worthwhile for structural applications?

Cano-Crespo, R; Moshtaghioun, BM; Gomez-Garcia, D; Moreno, R; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A
Journal of the European Ceramic Society, 38 (2018) 3994-4002


The use of allotropic phases of carbon (i.e. nanotubes, graphene or carbon nanofibers) as second phases to design ceramic composites is a hot topic at present. Researchers try to provide a remarkable improvement of the parent ceramic assuming that some of the outstanding mechanical properties of these phases migrate to the resultant composite. This reasonable idea has been questioned severely in the case of nanotubes addition but there is not any analysis for the other two phases cited previously. To elucidate this question, zirconia was selected as a model ceramic. This paper reports the mechanical properties of zirconia composites reinforced either with graphene or carbon nanofibers, with special emphasis on the high-temperature plasticity.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jeurceramsoc.2018.04.045

Mechanosynthesis of Sr1-xLaxTiO3 anodes for SOFCs: Structure and electrical conductivity

Sayagues, MJ; Gotor, J; Pueyo, M; Poyato, R; Garcia-Garcia, FJ
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 763 (2018) 679-686


Sr1-xLaxTiO3 (SLT; 0 <= x <= 0.5) powder samples were synthesised at room temperature by a mechanochemical method from SrO, La2O3 and TiO2 mixtures in 90 min. The obtained SLT samples as potential anode materials in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) were investigated. The microstructure, electrical conductivity and chemical compatibility with yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ) were studied. The powder samples had a nanometric character after milling. After a subsequently heating at 900 degrees C, the particle size slightly increased, but still remained nanometric. At this high temperature, a good chemical compatibility with YSZ was found. The x = 0.2 sample gave the best electrical conductivity values, i.e. 0.23 W cm(-2). These features make such as-obtained samples good candidates to be used as anodes in SOFCs.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.05.243

Nanostructured vanadium carbonitride prepared by combustion synthesis during mechanical milling

Jalaly, M; Gotor, FJ; Sayagues, MJ
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 763 (2018) 18-24


Vanadium carbonitride (VCN) nanoparticles were synthesized by a mechanically induced magnesiothermic combustion in a Mg/V2O5/C3H6N6 system. Initial materials ignited after a short milling time of 6 min. Various characterizations such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and elemental mapping confirmed that the product of the combustion was a mixed carbonitride. In this process, magnesium reduces vanadium oxide to generate elemental V and a great amount of heat. Melamine decomposes due to the temperature rise, and its decomposed species form the carbonitride compound. The chemical composition of the synthesized product was estimated to be VC0.26N0.36.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.jallcom.2018.05.352

Absorption enhancement in methylammonium lead iodide perovskite solar cells with embedded arrays of dielectric particles

Jimenez-Solano, A; Carretero-Palacios, S; Miguez, H
Optics Express, 26 (2018) A865-A878


In the field of hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite based photovoltaics, there is a growing interest in the exploration of novel and smarter ways to improve the cells light harvesting efficiency at targeted wavelength ranges within the minimum volume possible, as well as in the development of colored and/or semitransparent devices that could pave the way both to their architectonic integration and to their use in the flowering field of tandem solar cells. The work herein presented targets these different goals by means of the theoretical optimization of the optical design of standard opaque and semitransparent perovskite solar cells. In order to do so, we focus on the effect of harmless, compatible and commercially available dielectric inclusions within the absorbing material, methylammonium lead iodide (MAPI). Following a gradual and systematic process of analysis, we are capable of identifying the appearance of collective and hybrid (both localized and ex tended) photonic resonances which allow to significantly improve light harvesting and thus the overall efficiency of the standard device by above 10% with respect to the reference value while keeping the semiconductor film thickness to a minimum. We believe our results will be particularly relevant in the promising field of perovskite solar cell based tandem photovoltaic devices, which has posed new challenges to the solar energy community in order to maximize the performance of semitransparent cells, but also for applications focusing on architectonic integration. 

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1364/OE.26.00A865

Adhesion enhancement of DLC hard coatings by HiPIMS metal ion etching pretreatment

Santiago, JA; Fernandez-Martinez, I; Wennberg, A; Molina-Aldareguia, JM; Castillo-Rodriguez, M; Rojas, TC; Sanchez-Lopez, JC; Gonzalez, MU; Garcia-Martin, JM; Li, H; Bellido-Gonzalez, V; Monclus, MA; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R
Surface & Coatings Technology, 349 (2018) 787-796


Poor adhesion is a recurrent problem for the wider use of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings in industrial applications. In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) metal ion etching to improve the adhesion of DLC coatings on high speed steel substrates. The influence of HiPIMS pretreatment parameters, the metal ion selection for the process and the addition of bonding layers on the adhesion properties were studied. Daimler-Benz and nanoscratch test methods were used to evaluate the adhesion. The elemental composition, morphology and microstructure of the samples were evaluated by EELS, SEM, AFM and HRTEM. In general, samples pretreated with HiPIMS metal ion etching withstand larger critical loads than those pretreated by conventional Ar + glow discharge and bonding layers. The pretreatment is proven to be very effective at removing surface contaminants and providing a gradual interface. The selection of Cr over Ti contributes to a significant improvement on the adhesion due to the reduction of the oxygen level at the interface thus ensuring an optimal coating-substrate contact and a more compliant structure, which prevents the delamination failure.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.surfcoat.2018.04.090

Vitrification and derived glass-ceramics from mining wastes containing vermiculite and lithium aluminium phosphate

Rincon, JM; Callejas, P; Sanchez-Soto, PJ; Jordan, MM
Materials Letters, 227 (2018) 86-89


The waste vitrification of abandoned open sky vermiculite deposits has been considered by combining with a natural phosphate mineral residue. Several batches haven been designed from the composition system: Li2O-MgO-Al2O3-P2O5-SiO2 including some Fe2O3 and Fluoride. The resulting glasses are transparent and smooth green coloured, giving rise after TTT treatments to several opal, opaque glass-ceramics with iridescent surface. Full characterization has been carried out by XRD and electron microscopy with EDS, as well as by XPS spectroscopies, concluding that the main crystalline phases formed were alpha-cordierite and beta-spodumene. The surface of these glass-ceramics from vermiculiteamblygonite is enriched in Fe2O3. Compared to the parent glasses, the final glass-ceramics exhibited and improvement in fracture toughness.

Septiembre, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.matlet.2018.05.001

Unravelling the Role of Oxygen Vacancies in the Mechanism of the Reverse Water-Gas Shift Reaction by Operando DRIFTS and Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy

Bobadilla, LF; Santos, JL; Ivanova, S; Odriozola, JA; Urakawa, A
ACS Catalysis, 8 (2018) 7455-7467


The reaction mechanism of the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction was investigated using two commercial gold-based catalysts supported on Al2O3 and TiO2. The surface species formed during the reaction and reaction mechanisms were elucidated by transient and steady-state operando DRIFTS studies. It was revealed that RWGS reaction over Au/Al2O3 proceeds through the formation of formate intermediates that are reduced to CO. In the case of the Au/TiO2 catalyst, the reaction goes through a redox mechanism with the suggested formation of hydroxycarbonyl intermediates, which further decompose to CO and water. The Ti-3+ species, the surface hydroxyls, and oxygen vacancies jointly participate. The absence of carbonyl species adsorbed on gold particles during the reaction for both catalysts indicates that the reaction pathway involving dissociative adsorption of CO2 on Au particles can be discarded. To complete the study, operando ultraviolet visible spectroscopy was successfully applied to confirm the presence of Ti3+ and to understand the role of the oxygen vacancies of TiO2 support in activating CO2 and thus the subsequent RWGS reaction.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b02121

Solar pilot plant scale hydrogen generation by irradiation of Cu/TiO2 composites in presence of sacrificial electron donors

Maldonado, MI; Lopez-Martin, A; Colon, G; Peral, J; Martinez-Costa, JI; Malato, S
Applied Catalysis B-Environmental, 229 (2018) 15-23


A Cu/TiO2 photocatalyst has been synthesised by reducing a Cu precursor with NaBH4 onto the surface of a sulphate pretreated TiO2 obtained by a sol-gel procedure. The catalyst, that shows a clearly defined anatase phase with high crystallinity and relatively high surface area, and contains Cu2O and CuO deposits on its surface, has been used to produce hydrogen in a solar driven pilot plant scale photocatalytic reactor. Different electron donor aqueous solutions (methanol, glycerol, and a real municipal wastewater treatment plant influent) have been tested showing similar or even higher energy efficiency than those obtained using more expensive noble metal based photocatalytic systems. The glycerol solutions have provided the best reactive environments for hydrogen generation.

Agosto, 2018 | DOI: 10.1016/j.apcatb.2018.02.005